Tuesday, August 25, 2020

How To Live in a Frank Lloyd Wright Design

The most effective method to Live in a Frank Lloyd Wright Design American designer Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) is perfectly healthy. Accepting that way of thinking is a higher priority than plan, Wrights tasteful - amicability, nature, natural engineering - is conspicuous in the examples of his structure. Try not to attempt to show plan, he composed at Taliesin. Educate standards. The genuine Frank Lloyd Wright outlines are his enduring goals. Do the agreeable, Prairie style houses make your heart avoid a beat? Have you generally longed for claiming a Frank Lloyd Wright perfect work of art like Fallingwater? OK, perhaps less water. Be that as it may, what about a Wright Usonian home, similar to the Zimmerman House in New Hampshire? Block and wood and a mass of windows bring nature into your living space, obscuring the lines among outside and inside. Candid Lloyd Wright (FLW) constructed many private homes, and consistently a couple of progress possession. In 2013, The Wall Street Journal revealed that around 20 homes were available from the roughly 270 exclusive FLW homes. A considerable lot of the homes by Mr. Wright present difficulties, reports the WSJ. Little kitchens, no cellars, restricted entryways, worked in furniture, and holes are only a couple of the troubles for the cutting edge mortgage holder. At the point when you purchase a Wright, youre purchasing a bit of history critical to numerous individuals - some may state to such a large number of individuals. Wright fans will consistently be hiding around your home in the event that you purchase a unique. A considerable lot of Wrights homes are in the Wisconsin/Illinois zone, and consistently that is the place the vast majority of the turnover is. Wright design outside of this zone is progressively uncommon and may will in general be available for longer timeframes. The Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy monitors Wright houses at present for saleâ -Wright on the Market. In the event that theres nothing by Wright in your city, consider recruiting a draftsman to hand craft another home in the soul of the ace. No ifs, ands or buts, the head firm for Wright-propelled manifestations used to be Taliesin Associated Architect (TA). From Wrights demise in 1959 until the gathering rearranged in 2003, TA proceeded with the building practice set up by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1893. The Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture keeps up two structure studios, one at Taliesin West in Arizona and another at Taliesin in Spring Green, Wisconsin. A draftsman who has prepared or apprenticed at either Taliesin may better comprehend the soul of Wrights design. The Taliesin Fellows remain associated however practice secretly after graduation. The main thing you might need to do, however, is take a visit at either Taliesin. Draftsmen dont need to prepare at Taliesin to configuration like Wright, however these previous Taliesin Fellows present their very own magnificent cluster plans: Michael Rust; Richard A. Keding; Aaron G. Green; William Arthur Patrick, author of Midglen Studio; Barry Peterson at Studio 300A Architecture; Jeremiah (Jaimie) Kimber at j kimber structure; Floyd Hamblen; and Anthony Puttnam, Architect, LLC. For progressively about cutting edge engineering propelled by Frank Lloyd Wright, look at the books A Living Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright and Taliesin Architects by John Rattenbury (2000) and John H. Howe, Architect: From Taliesin Apprentice to Master of Organic Design by Jane King Hession (2015). Private mortgage holders by and large cannot utilize unique Frank Lloyd Wright outlines. The people at Florida Southern College, in any case, as of now had Usonian house plans Wright had intended for the grounds in 1939. Development of the house was done in 2013 and you can visit it and the whole Lakeland, Florida grounds. Taliesin modelers can be expensive, no uncertainty. On the off chance that youre expanding on a tight spending plan, consider buying development prepared structure plans for a Prairie style house. While not copies of Wrights work, a significant number of these stock plans look like the meandering aimlessly homes that Frank Lloyd Wright planned - and they can be changed by your neighborhood modeler. Various organizations offer designs for Wright-motivated houses. Recollect that Wright previously explored different avenues regarding the Prairie configuration path in 1893 - before 1900 Wright had built up the advanced plan cherished today, however varieties were made in Wrights own lifetime. The Prairie house style is only that - a style that roused numerous adjustments . Regardless of whether your new home isn't a Wright unique, it can fuse his most mainstream subtleties. Bring out the soul of the ace through furnishings, dish sets, materials, lighting, and backdrops. Straight to the point Lloyd Wright is notable for his inherent furnishings and cabinets, however his propagation housewares can be found all over. Particularly famous are Wright-type hanging lights. After creator T.C. Boyle purchased a Frank Lloyd Wright house in Montecito, California, he was roused to keep in touch with one of the most famous books about Wright, a fictionalized record of Wrights relationships called The Women. Perhaps you could be the following T.C. Boyle. Sources Looking for the Wright Path at Taliesin West by Logan Ward, Architect Magazine, December 9, 2014The Pleasures and Pitfalls of Frank Lloyd Wright Homes by Joann S. Lublin, The Wall Street Journal, May 16, 2013 at http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887323372504578469410621274292Taliesin ARchitects Reorganized by Jim Goulka, Taliesin Fellows Newsletter, Number 12, July 15, 2003 at http://re4a.com/wp-content/transfers/taliesinfellows_Jul03.pdf [accessed November 21, 2013]Frank Lloyd Wright On Architecture: Selected Writings (1894-1940), Frederick Gutheim, ed., Grossets Universal Library, 1941, p. 214 Outline Begin pressing. You can live in a house structured by Frank Lloyd Wright - or one that appears as though it may have been. Heres how: Purchase an Original Wright-Designed HouseBuild a Wright-Like House Designed by a Taliesin FellowUse Mail Order Stock House PlansAdd Wright Details to Your Home

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Effect of Legalization of marijuana in the Economy of California

Presentation Cannabis sativa L. is a plant that shows up normally in the greater part of the states and everywhere throughout the world. The plant has been related with a ton of advantages and different uses by individuals from varying backgrounds. Medicinally, the plant has been demonstrated to have a ton of health advantages as it tends to be utilized in assembling of medications with corrective nature and furthermore has different other clinical benefits.Advertising We will compose a custom report test on The Effect of Legalization of maryjane in the Economy of California explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marijuana is the name given to the plant and every one of its parts and items including its leaves, stem, roots, seeds and the various items got from it, both when it is developing and in any event, when it has been straightforward. On the opposite side, maryjane has been utilized by people in various manners, particularly for social uses, for example, entert ainment, diminishing pressure and different uses (Pacula 1). The medication has been banned in all the states in the USA. In any case, there stays an enormous level of the populace that despite everything depends on the medication for their day by day living, either by taking part in its utilization or by participating in its business. The Marijuana business has been working underground and unlawfully. Be that as it may, examines have demonstrated that the business has been in a steady condition of a blast and has been assessed to add up to a great many dollars. Along these lines, those working the business have had the option to make extraordinary income particularly since there are no cost ramifications on them as far as duties and other legitimate necessities (RAND 1). Authorization of Marijuana It has been a typical discussion in the majority of the states with respect to whether Marijuana ought to be sanctioned and engraved in the state laws consequently permitting it to be uti lized uninhibitedly, much the same as some other thing in the market. Thusly, the law will give an arrangement for lawfulness of the maryjane advertise and furthermore for all the endeavors worried about the medication, including enlistment and tax assessment from all organizations, assurance of those utilizing the medications in the correct manner and furthermore an approach to manage all the wrongdoings related with the medications. Furthermore, the states will have the option to lay limitations on the medication, subsequently guaranteeing the residents utilize the medications increasingly dependable and in an others conscious way (RAND 1). The California state is one of the states that have grasped legitimizing the medication and in any event, writing it in the rundown of the permitted social medications along with liquor and cigarettes. Thusly, it has been accepted that the medication will go about as a wellspring of income for the legislature as far as the expenses gathered jus t as a wellspring of work and salary for many.Advertising Looking for report on business financial aspects? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The progression will likewise guarantee residents who keep the law precisely and don't raise a ruckus to others are ensured regardless of whether they utilize the medication. Also, residents will grasp the utilization of the medication all the more dependably maintaining a strategic distance from any cases that may require imprisoning, probation and clinical costs for treatment of maltreatment of the medication (Pacula 1). Henceforth, there is a requirement for the territory of California, just as different states in the USA, to grasp sanctioning of Marijuana since this will have a great deal of advantages both to the residents and to the state in the long run rather than utilization of the medication illicitly which results to genuine and undeserved punishments to those got and further more prompts loss of billions of dollars for every year I n government income that would have been gathered from the cannabis business. Impact of the Legalization on Demand It has been anticipated that if the legislature legitimizes the medication, there will be a ton of changes relating to the interest for the medication in the market and subsequently, there will be a ton of rebuilding in the weed advertise. Right now, because of the control and wrongdoing of the utilization of the medication just as the severity from the masters of the law in the state which incorporates overwhelming punishments and conceivable detainment of those associated with ownership, deal or utilization of the medication, a considerable lot of the individuals who wish to utilize the medication in a sensible manner have dodged its utilization. These limitations from the administration have gone about as an impetus to the utilization of the medication and consequently numerous either simply stay away from its utilization or complete criminal operations related to the medication. Actually, there have been a great deal of underground endeavors in the market prompting enormous unlawful black markets for the medication. In these business sectors, there are many individuals associated with the deal and acquisition of the medication, however normally in mask in order to maintain a strategic distance from discovery by the law masters. Be that as it may, the vast majority of the residents can't follow up on the foundation of the underground endeavors since they are include a ton of hazard and subsequently are very hazardous. This has left the entire business in the hands of sly and risky groups that attempt the deal and conveyance of the medication and really are equipped in a way to attempt to confront any resistance from the law masters, representing a great deal of hazard and un rest to the law authorities and the state everywhere (Deist 1). On the opposite side, it has been seen that with a uthorization of the medication, there will be a great deal of mental soundness in the market and end of unlawful groups that are engaged with the market subsequently permitting the medication to be sold unreservedly and in a more secure manner. This will improve the picture of the pot showcase and draw in more customers who will consequently select to utilize the medication increasingly capable and without doing any illicit endeavors (Whitcomb 1).Advertising We will compose a custom report test on The Effect of Legalization of weed in the Economy of California explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More The interest for the medication is will undoubtedly increment in an incredible manner the same number of won't fear engaging in its deal. This ay, there will be a bigger market for the deals, even as the previously existing business sector gets helped because of its legitimization. There are numerous elements that are credited to an expansion in the interest for cannabis. To start with, the expanded interest will build the costs for the medication making more individuals be associated with developing and providing the item, a factor that will undoubtedly bring about an inevitable bringing down of the cost for the medications and consequently stableness in the market. On the opposite side, the market will have a more prominent base for its profits and will likewise result to an additional wellsprings of incomes for the administration. What's more, the market will compel an opposition between merchants coming about to an improvement of the quality offered and the manner in which it is conveyed. Along these lines, the medication will be utilized all the more mindfully and will henceforth have more preferences to the whole society (Robak 1). Impact on flexibly The legitimization of weed in the territory of California will largy affect the gracefully of the item in the market. The fundamental impact is that it will result to more individuals wishing to wa nder into the exchange since it is related with a great deal of income just as significant yields gotten from offer of the normally concurring medication. Along these lines, even ranchers will wish to plant more plants and henceforth increment their harvests since the plants require less information sources and less consideration however have a great deal of profits and don't require any further preparing, aside from in the clinical cases. In the typical conditions, the plants are collected and afterward dried before being bundled and provided to the market. The significant expenses in the commercial centers will henceforth draw in numerous ranchers who will wish to be engaged with the creation of the medication and afterward gracefully it to the market (Preston and Tracy 17). Moreover, legitimization of the medication will result to more individuals engaging in the deal and circulation of the medication in the market in a lawful and right way. This will prompt a high rivalry among the providers coming about to expanded flexibly and successively a brought down cost for the medications. This will likewise guarantee the sellers in the maryjane business hold fast to the law and stay away from avoidance of duties, a factor that will prompt assortment of more income for the administration (Whitcomb1).Advertising Searching for report on business financial matters? We should check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Find out More Flexibility of interest and gracefully The expanded interest and expanded flexibly will have a general impact of experiencing motions of an ascent and a fall in the costs of weed. This market will thus be request and flexibly determined, where costs will be completely reliant on the interest and the gracefully of the medication just as the opposition between sellers. In this manner, because of a serious market, the interest and gracefully will turn out to be increasingly flexible coming about to a progressively steady market that will be progressively solid by those doing the exchange, the clients who purchase the maryjane and even to the administration particularly as far as assortment of charges and obligations related to the exchange. Different elements There are different variables that will change because of the authorization of the exchange and utilization of pot. In the beginning, there will be less inclusion of unlawful posses being related to the exchange and utilization of the medication. This will result to an improved security to all engaged with the pot use and exchange, the law masters and even the residents on the loose. Likewise, there is a chance of brought down spending by the legislature on law requirement changing the manner in which it has been previously. Subsequently, less individuals will be captured as related to the medication and in this manner the legislature can occupy the assets to progressively useful ways. On the opposite side, there will be a great deal of enrollment of those engaged with the exchange of the medications just as tax assessment on such an exchange. This will result to expanded wellsprings of income for the administration prompting greater advancement in the economy (Deist 1). At last,

Monday, August 10, 2020

Connecting Behavior and Consequences for Kids With ADHD

Connecting Behavior and Consequences for Kids With ADHD ADHD Parenting Print Connecting Behavior and Consequences for Kids With ADHD By Keath Low Keath Low, MA, is a therapist and clinical scientist with the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities at the University of North Carolina. She specializes in treatment of ADD/ADHD. Learn about our editorial policy Keath Low Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on July 07, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on January 23, 2020 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Hero Images / Getty Images Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often constantly moving or fidgeting, have trouble focusing, and struggle to process information as rapidly or correctly as other children. This can affect how they interpret the consequences of their behavior, which can be frustrating for ?parents and teachers. Lets take a look at why there is often a disconnect between behavior and consequence in children with ADHD, and how to best help them make the connection. Disconnect Between Behavior and Consequence Kids with ADHD often have difficulty delaying or inhibiting their responses. Instead, they tend to live in the moment, reacting immediately to that moment without thought. For a child to make a connection between a specific behavior and consequence, they need to be able to pause, think through, weigh the consequences of the behavior, and then allow these thoughts to guide their decision making about the behavior. For many children with ADHD, there is often a disconnect between thinking and reacting. When everything seems to happen all at once, they respond impulsively without using information about past experiences to guide their behavior. This is why kids with ADHD do not seem to learn from past mistakes as easily as their peers. How to Teach Children Responsibility and Self Awareness Impairments in working memory can also result in problems being able to see what lies ahead. In other words, a child may have trouble keeping relevant information to help make decisions about future behavior. In addition, kids with ADHD may experience a delay in the development of internal languageâ€"the voice inside our head that helps us to talk to ourselves, contemplate what we should do, and then regulate our behavior. Connecting Behavior and Consequences When you have a child who thinks and reacts impulsively, its helpful if you can intervene and provide cues, reminders, incentives, and guidance at the point of performanceâ€"the moment in time when your child must inhibit behavior to meet the demands of the situation. Your immediate feedback about his behaviorâ€"pointing out, reinforcing, and rewarding a child when they are displaying the behavior you want to see, and providing mild reprimands and redirection to help get them back on track when they begin to engage in inappropriate behaviorâ€"will help your child stop and think or put on the brakes before responding. Your teaching and training in this area will also help them develop greater self-awareness. The more aware of and in-tune your child is with the situation, the more likely they will be to connect cause and effect and use it to guide their behavior. Also, be sure to follow through with consequences in a consistent manner. Feedback needs to be provided immediately and frequently. Guidelines should be readily identified to help your child know what to expect. These strategies help keep your childs environment predictable. How to Create Structure for Kids With ADHD

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Questions On The Physical Appearance - 938 Words

1) Our physical appearance communicates nonverbally how professional we are. Dressing professionally gives the perception of increased status, competence or knowledge, trustworthiness, and the ability to influence others. Adorning artifacts signals to others our style and our unique sense of self. Although, too many artifacts for a professional woman could give the wrong impression. Acceptable jewelry for women are button earrings, chain chokers, and necklaces; however, these are less acceptable for men. Our vocalics which includes pitch, rate, and volume help us mean what we say. If an employee is frustrated, their vocalics will reveal the emotion to the supervisor. For gestures and body movement, we use emblems, illustrators, and regulators. Emblems have direct verbal translations. Holding your hand up with the palm facing someone translated verbally is â€Å"stop.† Illustrators complement the verbal message by clarifying or intensifying your message such as pointing with your finger in the direction while verbally giving the directions. Facial expressions, including the eyes, convey emotions. When we are angry, sad, or happy, our face will show it. Eye contact of 60 to 70 percent can also improve your effectiveness as a leader or project self-esteem and trustworthiness. Maintaining the appropriate proximity of others expresses our respect for them and how familiar we are with them. We allow close friends and family in our personal space; however, for professionalShow MoreRelatedWhat Does Character Look Like?810 Words   |  4 Pagesjudgment on the appearance of others can greatly influence or even completely determine his initial treatment of the individual. Recent studies have proved â€Å"that physically attractive individuals are thought to possess more sociably desirable personalities and higher moral standards than those who are physically unattractive† (Kong, Yan, Hong). This very common phenomenon would not raise issues if everyone was able to choose their physical features. Considering that in reality, physical traits are givenRead MoreEnglish Paper: Rhetorical Analysis of Frankenstein802 Words   |  4 PagesMary Shelley makes us question who really the â€Å"monster† is. Is it the creature or Victor? While the creature does commit murder, he does not understand the consequences of his actions. He is like an infant who is unfortunately left to learn about the workings of society, and his place in it, on his own. He has no companions and feels a great sense of loneliness and abandonment. The creature voices his frustration and anger and seems to try to project his feelings of guilt onto Victor, as if to showRead MoreHow Health Orientated Is A Group Of Students Essay732 Words   |  3 Pagesin this course. There were 25 participants both female and male from diverse nationalities. We asked the participants to fill out a 30 minute questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions regarding their health. These questions were measured using a 1-7 scale where 1 = not at all, 4 = moderately, 7 = definitely. Questions 1-5 in our questionnaire were added to create a total health orientation score. Based on a median split of the total score the class was divided into high and low orientation groupsRead MoreEssay on Human Sexuality and Gender Differences1081 Words   |  5 Pagesdecision in selecting romantic partners. Through analysis of the surveys, it has discovered that men and women are more similar then expected. On average, both men and women responded that they put more weight in personality traits then they do in physical traits. From person to person, one thing that seems to differ the most is values. Where one person may put a great deal of importance, another might not put any. Such is the case in which people choose romantic partners. An attribute one personRead MorePhysical Appearance in Non-Verbal Communication728 Words   |  3 PagesPhysical Appearance in Non-Verbal Communication Christian Ford ENG 223 March 9, 2013 Christon Walker Physical Appearance in Non-Verbal Communication Non-verbal communication has many facets, but typically Physical Appearance can usually make or break certain situations. In the following we will discuss in some detail what non-verbal communication is and how physical appearance plays a part. Why does appearance matter? Does it affect our views of other cultures? Will it make it easier to acceptRead MoreMedias Influence on Body Image Essay example1550 Words   |  7 Pagesplump women. A plump and healthy woman was respected as it reflected wealth and a success. Whereas in the recent years slim women are more valued according to Jennifer A cited in O’dea. body image discourages one from participating in physical activities. Physical activities could be participating in sports where one has a feeling of being â€Å"too fat† or feeling that one has to achieve a certain look before they can participate (Paxton , 2002, P. 4). 2.1 Theory Researchers have utilized variousRead MoreBeauty : When The Other Dance Is The Self1642 Words   |  7 Pagesthe Other Dance is the Self† how her experience with her eye being noticeably damaged had caused her to forget the value of her inner beauty. Similarly, Toni Morrison’s explains in â€Å"Strangers† that the media has highlighted the importance of physical appearance instead of a person’s character upon meeting them for the first time. The subject in Johannes Vermeer’s Study of a Young Woman is not conventionally beautiful but Vermeer saw something valuable in the subject that caused him to take his timeRead MoreWhat Is San Faca Essay1471 Words   |  6 Pages but is this image really that unsightly? The answer is no. There is only one issue - the squinting and is that even something that is worth being considered ugly? By definition ugly means; unpleasant or repulsive, especially in appearance. Therefore, the next question to ask is, does this image even fit that definition? Again, the answer is no. It is hurtful in a way to think of how a simple childhood grievance impacted general opinion. For years, I despised taking photos in the sun and on thatRead MorePhysical Appearance Versus True Personality Depicted in Shakespeares Macbeth871 Words   |  4 Pagessociety, and judging people by their appearance usually results in an inaccurate view of what is on the inside. Often times, the physical appearance that is bothersome at first glance fades away as one gets to know the person’s true personality. From then on one will realize how important it is to get to know someone before judging them instead of jumping to conclusions prior to actually knowing them. In Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth, the theme of appearances arises multiple times in the judgmentsRead MoreBenefits Of Mate Selection Preferences1665 Words   |  7 Pagesable to study people and find out respective trends. Previous research, such as the piece of research that was done by Susan Sprecher, Quintin Sullivan and Elaine Hartfield, ‘Gender Differences Examined in a National Sample’, finds that youth and physical attractiveness were more of an importance to men, and earning abilities to women. They also found such willingness between two races (black and white people), has been mostly consistent to each other, but with white women less willing to marry a

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Medieval Art Essay - 1064 Words

Medieval Art In the art world, the medieval periods were traditionally though to be the unproductive phase of Europe between the decline of Rome and the Renaissance. Our modern feelings toward medieval art are far more appreciative. The main intent of Medieval art was to express Christianity which was also a common bond between a wide spread and diverse Europe. For this reason most of the art found from medieval times originated in monasteries and churches. European art during the Middle Ages can be divided into four periods. These four periods include Celto-Germanic art which ranged from 400 to 800 A.D. and was important in metal work. Carolingian art ranged from 750 to 987 A.D. overlapping 50 years of the Celto-Germanic period. The†¦show more content†¦The Carolingian style is of small dimensions. Most of this style pulls its influence from Byzantine artwork. â€Å"An explanation for the sudden change from Celto-Germanic styling can be attributed to the new minuscule form of writing, remarkable for its clarity and form† (Pioch). Metal work from this time period is rare although writings tell us that goldsmiths and enamel workers remained active. Romanesque The art of the Romanesque period was characterized by the revival of sculptures and fresco painting. These were common elements of architecture. Along with those architectural advancements the period produced frequent examples of realism as well as a heightened emphasis on emotion and fantasy. The crusades acted as a main contributor to this time period lending more religious and revolutionary imagery. Examples of Romanesque sculpture are dated back to the last decade of the eleventh century and then first decades of the twelfth. â€Å"The primary source of artistic patronage was provided by the monastic institutions, for whom sculptors executed large relief carvings for the decoration of church portals and richly ornate capitals for cloisters† (Cleaver 156) Another aspect of the Romanesque revival was the production of metalwork objects, of which many outstanding examples, such as crucifixes, reliquary shrines, and candlesticks, are still preserved in church treasu ries. It wasShow MoreRelatedEssay on Medieval Art1111 Words   |  5 PagesIn the art world, the medieval periods were traditionally though to be the unproductive phase of Europe between the decline of Rome and the Renaissance. Our modern feelings toward medieval art are far more appreciative. The main intent of Medieval art was to express Christianity which was also a common bond between a wide spread and diverse Europe. For this reason most of the art found from medieval times originated in monasteries and churches. European art during the Middle Ages can be dividedRead MoreRelationship Between Religion and Art in Medieval, Renaissance and Contemporary Times2657 Words   |  11 Pagesold belief that a perfect soul meant a perfect outward appearance (Smart 122). She is famous and celebrated, and is visited by Christians from every nation. In another part of the world, The Holy Virgin Mary by Chris Ofili resides in the Brooklyn Art Museum. It is a painting of Mary atop a pile of elephant feces, the Virgin herself made with the same substance, while surrounded by cutouts from pornographic magazines. The work has stirred much controversy but today still sits in the museum for theRead MoreArt : Comparing Medieval Art to Renaissance Art1248 Words   |  5 PagesArt Appreciation Name: Chadwick West Instructor: xxxxxxxxxxxx Course: Art Appreciation, ART 137 School: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx December 19, 2012 Comparing Medieval Art to Renaissance Art Medieval art period Medieval art covers a large scope of time. The period covered over 1000 years of art in Europe, Middle East and North Africa. The period was characterized by major art movements based on national art and regional art. There was alsoRead MoreThe Heart : Reading And Writing The Medieval Subject976 Words   |  4 Pagesof the Heart: Reading and Writing the Medieval Subject†, written by Eric Jager, he states that in the world of visual art in the medieval era, â€Å"book of the heart† was a commonly used image. Mr. Jager point out the different trends the term â€Å"book of the heart† goes through. Focusing on how the term went from literal to a commonly used figurative phrase, he tries to show how a frequently used term made such an impact on the past and the present. Using medieval art, literature, and other authors’ worksRead MoreThe Importance Of Childhood In Medieval Art917 Words   |  4 Pagesearly paintings and pictures. Aries (1996) pointed out â€Å"Medieval art did until about the twelfth century did not know childhood or did not attempt to portray it† (p.33, which demonstrates that ancient artists did not view or assumed the value of childhood during the time. In this regard, this paper outlines how medieval art disregarded the importance of childhood by ignoring it and portraying children as a less important aspect of their art. Art is believed to have started way before the coming of ChristRead MoreEssay on Innovation During the Middle Ages 2066 Words   |  9 PagesThe Middle Ages, contrary to its name, was a dynamic period of innovations. Throughout this period, visual arts were employed to communicate important messages to the public as well as private wealthy patrons. A variety of mediums were used to disseminate ideas. Though, the sense of decorum shifted, the purpose of these moralizing images of religious figures remained the same. Art was, as it still is an extremely useful and powerful tool for both religious and political advancements. The two piecesRead MoreArt : An Important Center Of European Medieval Art1015 Words   |  5 PagesIt is amazing how something that is recognized as an important center of European Medieval art is looked upon by most of the world as a place where you can snap a cool picture of yourself ‘leaning’ on the Tower of Pisa. A place detailed, yet decayed†¦ a place with four monuments, yet recognized as one center†¦ a place representing life, yet death. The aura surrounding this square makes me just want to sit on the grass and read or write or think. I just want the stony intricate building to envelop myRead MoreEssay on Medieval vs. Renaissance Art887 Words   |  4 PagesMedieval vs. Renaissance Art Art during the Italian Renaissance differed from art during the Middle Ages. The two have contrasting characteristics and concepts. To the people in the medieval world, religion was their life. Everything in daily life focused around the church and God (Modern World 164). Medieval culture influenced the arts; this was evident in the religious themes. During the Italian Renaissance, painters and other artists focused on the portrayal of a more humanistic way ofRead MoreEssay about The Medieval Synthesis in the Arts 1023 Words   |  5 PagesThe Medieval Synthesis in the Arts ca. (1000-1300) thirteen century Gothic Church. The Chartres Cathedral Church is one of the most important in France. After a fire in 1134 destroy the town of Chartres the west front of the cathedral. The rebuilding of the west facade between 1145-50. It was once known as Notre Dame de Chartres but today is known as Chartres Cathedral. This church has the essential parts of a Christian basilica. The cathedr al is locates in the town of Chartres, Northwester FranceRead MoreMedieval Art And Architecture Of The Gothic Architecture909 Words   |  4 PagesThe term Gothic comes from Giorgio Vaasari, he used the term to ridicule the medieval art and architecture. Putting the art aside, the architecture of the period was quite awesome, cathedrals stand today as a testament to this. The Gothic style was birthed in France as the Romanesque style evolved. The Saint-Denis was the first Gothic cathedral; it was designed Abbot Suger in 1144. Gothic Cathedrals were marvels in their time as they towered above the cities, they frequently reached over 150 meters

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Interpretation and judgement in news reporting. Free Essays

INTRODUCTION In this chapter I will undertake a review of theories relevant to the theme of this work. Various scholarly positions on the theory of media representation, media and social responsibility and pattern of crisis reporting will be thoroughly examined. I will equally review scholarly works on the origin and nature of the Nigerian press. We will write a custom essay sample on Interpretation and judgement in news reporting. or any similar topic only for you Order Now MEDIA REPRESENTATION The media in any society serve as the window through which the wider world is viewed. They give and account of reality but not the reality in the real sense. Positions of various scholars in the field of media studies reveal that what we read, hear or watch on the media is representation of reality and as such, the media have the ability to and actually do construct the reality through their coverage and reportage of events. The knowledge and perception of people about events, issues and objects within and beyond their geographical settings are usually formed and shaped by media representation of such events, issues and objects. The idea that the media utilize language, semiotic and visual images to construct realities has been extensively written and researched in various works and among various scholars in the field of media and communication studies. While some scholars have espoused cultural views of media representation (Hall, 1997) others have adopted the notion of race (O†™Shaughnessy 1997, Ferguson 2002, Acosta-Alzure 2003) language, and identity (Rayner 2001). To Hall (1997, p. 17) â€Å"Representation is the production of the meaning of the concepts in our mind through language and it is the link between concepts that enables us to refer to either the real world of objects, people or events†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The concept of representation according to Hall (ibid) entails â€Å"using language to say something meaningful about or to represent the world meaningfully to other people†¦it is an essential part of the process by which meaning is produced and exchanged between members of a culture†. Hall describes representation as a phenomenon that involves the use of language, signs and images to symbolise and represent objects. The use of language in cultural studies can be reflective when it reflects the existing meaning of an object, intentional when it reflects the personally intended meaning and constructionist when meaning is constructed through the use of language (Hall, 1997). Hall (1997, p.15) examines the concepts of representation in terms of the â€Å"circuit of culture† which implies that representation, as a concept in cultural studies â€Å"connects meaning and language to culture† The media utilize a great deal of images, signs and language to describe and report events or objects to their audiences and their use of such elements serve as the basis upon which the knowledge and perception of audiences about the objects and events being reported rest. Representation therefore dwells on how the media create meaning and form knowledge through the use of language and visual images. In their view, Acosta Alzuru and Roushanzamir (2003, p.47) assert that â€Å"Representation constructs meaning by connecting the world language and live experiences. By performing these connections representation does not reflect the frame of the world but that it constitutes the world†. In their view, Rayner et al (2001, p.63) describe representation as â€Å"the process by which the media present to us the real world†. They further assert that â€Å"there is a wide philosophical debate about what constitutes ‘reality’ and whether, in fact, reality ultimately exists. If however, we assume, for the convenience of looking at representation, that there is an external reality, then, one key function of the media is to represent that reality to us, the audience†. One issue central to various postulations of scholars on media representation is the inability of the media to reproduce the exact real word. News generally is an account of reality, not reality itself, thus most media organizations and journalists often fall prey of adding their interpretations and judgment to certain news stories with a view to creating meaning. INTERPRETATION AND JUDGEMENT IN NEWS REPORTING In reporting and presenting issues, media often add their own judgment and interpretations thereby defining the public knowledge of certain events. On the other hand, audiences also subject media messages to some interpretations which explain why they are of the view that media bias is possible in their reporting of events. According to Hawk (1992, p.1) â€Å"there are no such things as facts without interpretation†. This assertion is supported by Said (1981, p.154) as he succinctly observes that: â€Å"All knowledge that is about human society and not about natural world is historical knowledge and therefore rests upon judgment and interpretation. This is not to say that facts and data are non-existent but that facts get their importance from what is made upon interpretation†. In their coverage and reportage of events media therefore give their meaning and identify for readers those events that are considered important. Relating these assertions to the Nigerian press representation of Niger-Delta Crisis, it is evident that media tend to give meaning and interpretation to the activities of the Niger-Delta militants vis-a-vis government reactions and perception of the general public. Based on the argument and counter argument between African and non-African analysts on the western media coverage of Africa, especially in the area of media subjecting their reports to judgement and interpretations, scholars have emphasized the need for news analysis. In his work â€Å"Islam and the West in the Mass Media, Hafez (2000) points out that international news coverage can be analysed by focusing on the textual patterns, linguistic feature, as well as the arrangement of facts, arguments and frames in foreign reporting to understand whether or not such report is based on objectivity or sensationalism (p.27). Empirical evidences based on existing views of various scholars reveal that in understanding the causes and effects of media coverage, it is important to examine the individual perception of the journalists and the orientation of the mass media in relation to the object being reported. As argued by Falola (2000, p.30), â€Å"most foreign media use certain stereotypes and images to represent African states as epitome of vampirical authoritarian governance, parasitical political elites, fierce religious and tribal animosities and endemic sickness and misery†. Having examined the theory of media representation vis-a-vis the discourse of media interpretation and judgements in news reporting, I proceed to discuss the media representation of Africa within the context of the theory media representation. THE MEDIA AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The social responsibility theory is based on the notion that the media must perform its role bearing in mind â€Å"public interest†. McQuails (2005:164) rightly observes that the concept of public interest is simple yet fraught with many disconnected views about what it entails or should entail. In Nigeria, for instance, the issue of resources control has been a subject for many debates and cause for protracted conflict. What would constitute â€Å"public interest?† Should the press promote the position of the proponents of resource control, or should it support those who say every State should share in equal measure from the nation’s oil wealthMcQuail, however quickly clears the fog by stating that the mass media must operate by the same principles that govern other units of society; principles which are justice, fairness, democracy, and prevailing notions of desirable social and cultural values. Any practice in society that undermines these principles singly or collectively constitutes sabotage of â€Å"public interest† and may correctly suffer report from the media. Further, McQuail identifies the factor that may affect the promotion of public interest which he defines in terms of cultural, political, professional and commercial interests. On culture-induced effects, there is the institutional entrenchment of a culture of apathy and distrust for the people of other tribes or ethnic groups. The Nigerian society’s penchant for religious and ethnic conflicts is an unfortunate testimony to this fact. And since the News must carry the stories, including that of casualties, there is the tendency for reporting to cause an escalation of the crisis. Liebes and Kampf (2004:79) captured it this way: â€Å"†¦.whereas politicians and representatives of the elite are free to address the media of any time (crossing the threshold through the â€Å"front door†), the only chance of radical groups to invade the screen is via the â€Å"back door†, that is, by the use of violence†¦the more violence they created, the greater the chance of crossing into the screen and being viewed by the public. The chance, however, is also greater for the coverage to be more negative, and therefore acts as a boomerang†. The political inhibition to â€Å"public interest† reporting may play out in the bias of the practicing journalist who might have a stake in the issues for which the group is agitating. How does a journalist from Niger Delta maintain neutrality on the issue of resource distribution and control when it has such profound effects on his life and that of his familyOr how does a journalist from Katsina State maintain neutrality when the ceding of resource control to the generating states means that his state’s allocation may be highly reduced. Beard (2000, p18) is of the position that â€Å"to expect that a political journalist or politician can tell the truth is problematic, because such an expectation fails to take account of the fact that both the creator and the receiver of the text bring ideological values to it†. He explains further that reporting capitalizes on certain language forms such as metaphors, metonymies, analogies and transitive, to show subtle or blatant sympathy for or apathy to various ideological positions extant in society (Beard, 2000:25) However, Keeble (2005:269) advocates for journalism practice that is found on universal principles of honesty, fairness, respect for the privacy, the avoidance of discrimination and conflict of interest. But he also correctly observes that â€Å"cultures and political systems around the globe throw up very different ethical challenges for journalists.† It is difficult to maintain neutrality in the face of threats, especially when such threats reach the point of fatality (Hartley 1982, p84; Tumber, 2004, p199), but the universal ideas require a reach toward neutrality and objectivity. Another factor that affects the responsibility of the media to the society is low level of professionalism.Professionalism may be seen as a commitment to the highest standard of excellence in the practice of journalism. It is a combination of the finest skills with the highest ethical conduct. This ideal contrasts sharply with the prevailing shallow approach to coverage and analysis of issues of public interest as seen in sections of the Nigerian media. The rate of unemployment and the abysmal state of corruption and nepotism have created an opportunity for unqualified individuals to practice journalism. The result, as Gujbawu (2002, p71) rightly observes, is the press’ increasing penchant for being a mouth piece for the ruling elite, and at the expense of society; a tendency for writing media content that misinforms, misleads, confuses and destroys society. In view of this, a classic work on theories of mass media has shown what many media problems are attributable to the edu cation of reporters and editors and poor preparation before undertaking assignments. Observable errors of fact may lead to questioning the authenticity of an entire report, which further brings to question the credibility of the media as dependable custodians of public conscience (Severin Tankard, 2001, p314-5). Another factor identified by McQuail (2005, p164) as the bane of â€Å"public interest† journalism is commercialism. Scholars agree that there is an increasing tendency toward monopolizing the media into the hands of a few rich business and media moguls (Dominick 1994, p109; Aufdeheide, 2004, p333 Stevenson, 2005 p40; Harrison, 2006, p164). These investors are engaged in stiff competition for market share with attendant repercussion. As noted by Folarin (1999, p27), the commercialists press â€Å"worships at the altar of profit and consumerism which often vitiate the ideals of social responsibility.† The profit motif makes the media vulnerable to the ideologies of big advertisers while consumerism lowers values since the media must give the public what it wants. Under this circumstance, commercial interests precedence over public good. Albeit, the social responsibility theory holds that the while the press must be free, it must also be adequate or responsible. The basic tenets of the socially responsible press, following the recommendations of the Robert Hutchins Commission of 1947, are thus outlined in (Severin and Tankard, 2001 p314; McQuails, 2005:171): A socially responsible press should provide a full, truthful, comprehensive and intelligent account of the day’s events in a context which gives them meaning. It should serve as a forum for the exchange of comments and criticism as a common carrier of the public expression, raising conflict to the plane of public discourse. A socially responsible press should give a representative picture of constituent groups in the society while presenting the goals and values of society, issues that have relevance to the well-being of the local community. A press with this kind of orientation is what is needed in a crisis –prone, or crisis –ridden society. Coverage of crisis in Nigeria requires that the media be truthful, comprehensive and balanced, representing the views and interests of the constituent groups in the federal state that it is. PATTERNS OF CRISIS REPORTING Pattern of reporting is a description of the differences in the reportage of news stories resulting from the different perspectives from which people view events. The patterns could be intrinsic or extrinsic, rather than being opposites, they are simply two sides of the same coin. Intrinsic patterns are the latent patterns that reflect the peculiarity of a paper, those features that differentiate one paper from others. These features are manifested in the language and the point of view that a paper expresses. It is seen in the way a paper challenges or reinforces certain stereotypes; the overt political position a paper adopts or discards (McNair, 2005:35). As Curran (2002:34) would suggest, the location of a news story within the frame of reference of a political position, by attribution, is a subtle way by which journalism advances one political opinion against another. On the other hand is the extrinsic pattern which is the obvious physical characteristics of a news report as it appears in the paper. This is marked by such features as the choice of a front-page story. The choice of a front-page story reveals the level of importance a newspaper ascribes to a story as against other stories. It is also manifest in the amount of space given to a story. A story that is considered as important will have depth of discussion, attributions, background information; a detailed description of the events and persons in the story. Also, an important story in the news is marked by extensive non-news editorial commentaries in the form of features, letters to the editor, opinion articles, and brazen editorials by the paper. This is where societal views are extracted and harnessed to set further agenda for public discourse to provide ideas for policy makers. Meanwhile, there are certain features that characterize crisis stories. One is that a crisis naturally commands prominence. In any crisis the suffering of the victim usually engages sympathy. This human interest factor makes the story popular, thus giving it prominence. The other factor is drama. Simply put, drama is action, deed or performance that interest people presented on a stage or theater. In this case, the stage for the drama in a social crisis is the public sphere (Abcaran Klotz, 2002:19). Drama in the news describes the day to day actions that occur in human societies, actions that are considered worthy of mediation. The crisis story is typically drama-laden. Crisis reporting captures the intrigues, blackmails, betrayal, protests, etc., that happen in man’s experience. Furthermore, the crisis story has conflict – the inability of players in the social sphere to reach consensus on issues of ideology, personal or group interest, and opinion. This may degenerat e into violence, often of fatal dimension (Veer, 2004:9). The interest is heightened by the impact of the conflict on human life and property. CRISIS COVERAGE AS CRISIS MANAGEMENT So far I have used the terms ‘crisis and ‘conflict’ interchangeably. The Chambers English Dictionary has defined crisis as â€Å"a crucial or decisive moment †¦.a time of difficulty and distress†, while conflict is described as â€Å"an unfortunate coincidence or opposition; violent collision†, some synonyms provided are â€Å"to fight; to contend; to be in opposition†. Conflict may be an overflow of crises. As it occurs in the Niger Delta, we may see a crisis from ethnic, political or economic dimensions, occurring hardly mutually exclusively, and manifesting in the form of protests, walkouts, strikes and often such violent expressions as killing, maiming, shooting, and kidnapping on which the study is focused. Simply put, conflict, as manifested at the community level in the Niger Delta, is the expression of disaffection and outburst of tension built up over time, due to denied or subverted expectations. Conflicts may be violent or non-violent. Reporting crisis takes different forms depending on the nature of the society in terms of its social structures and ethnic composition i.e. homogenous, plural, or multi-cultural societies. Owens-Ibie (2002, p33) citing Corbett, (1992) shows that â€Å"media in homogenous societies, characterized by an inclination toward consensus, tend to air conflict less than those in plural societies. Owen –Ibie goes on to state that Nigeria as a heterogeneous society tends to play out this trend. The media in the country is a terrain for airing conflict, and such coverage is a reflection of the socio-cultural and other diversities that the country typifies†. This statement cannot be untrue if weighed against the historical background of the Nigerian state, which comprise different ethnic nationalities fused against their wishes by the colonial explorers, a contrivance in mischief (Isoumonach and Gaskia, 2001, p55). This history has therefore been characterized by the constant strive for relevance and self-determination by each component of the amalgamation, especially the so – called minority groups. Expectedly, the media assumes a center state in these agitations, a hegemonic stance at that. Hartley (2002:99) explains that: â€Å"The crucial aspect of the notion of hegemony is not that it operates by forcing people against their will or better judgment to concede power to the already powerful, but that it works by winning consent to ways of making sense of the world that do in fact make sense†¦..the concept is used to show how everyday meanings, representations and activities are organized and made sense of in such a way as to render the interests of a dominant ‘bloc’ into an apparently natural and unarguable general interest, with a claim of everyone†. Two basic approaches for assuming hegemonic control quickly come to the fore. One is the media approach; the other is the people approach. With particular reference to the Niger Delta, what Curran (2002:150) refers to as ‘dominant discourse’ finds a fitting application in the agitations of the Niger Delta people. There has been a determined resolve to keep the media (and every occasion that promises media attention) awash with messages on resource control, fiscal federalism and equal rights to national political leadership. The expected outcome is to allow national and global attention, to the plight of Niger Delta people in the Nigerian state. The people approach is exploited when non-elite groups constitute themselves into â€Å"organizations† which are used as sources of news and comment by the media. While non-elite group, have in general restricted access to the media, this can be modified through improvements in organization (Curran, 2002 p152-153). Although this modification has come to be in the negative sense, the organization of various pressure groups and even militia forces has brought much media attention to the course of the Niger Delta in an unprecedented state. It is true that media coverage tends to favor the elite, official position. As this work shows, the news is most times written from the official stand point. By its very nature, the official is furnished with paraphernalia of office that guarantees that he makes a statement on a particular issue either in person or by proxy. The Nigerian President, for instance, has a Special Assistance for Media and Publicity, Special Adviser for Media and Pub licity and host of other officials; not counting that the services of the entire Ministry of Information and National Orientation and its quasi-organizations which include the Radio and TV networks, are at his disposal. It is therefore an onerous task for the other parties in the Niger Delta to beat this communicative advantage. Should the media then give a voice only to the elite party to the exclusion of the otherThis model shows that crisis management should be in three phases. The first phase or pre-crisis phase is the time when a crisis is anticipated. Having established that in a plural, multi-cultural state like Nigeria is conflict prone, the press should always anticipate crisis by observing the signals that portend disturbance in social equation. Then the media must provide such coverage as will help to nip the crisis in the bud. The media should identify, expose, educate and enlighten citizen on those things, persons, or policies that constitute a threat to national securi ty (Odunlanmi, 1999, p132; Galadima 2002:P62). The next phase will be the in-crisis stage, when a nation is facing a condition of distress. Galadima (2002, p60-62) presents the atmosphere that may characterize conflict reporting. First is that reporting advertently or inadvertently gives publicity to the crisis. Reporting tends to win appreciation or engender resentment by the different parties involved. This is because certain interests are either being protected or subverted if reporting is seen as biased, it could precipitate very unwelcomed reactions. The Nigerian experience shows that the parties that are not favored by a report may descend into unleashing terror on the reporter or the organization he/she represents, and even unworthy members of the society. Thirdly, reported violence in a conflict, especially casualty figures could lead to more violence. Nigeria is also a typical illustration of this. Whenever killing is reported, it usually precipitates reprisal attacks elsewhere. Fourthly, it should be noted that each party in the dispute wants to have a voice through the media from where they can air their subjective opinions on the issue. The media must not become or be seen as a horn speaker for either of the parties, as that would not be without grave consequences. Then we have the Post-Crisis stage. The media must determine, suggest and promote through editorial and commentaries, what â€Å"strategies and policies can be developed [and deployed] to prevent similar or related crisis† (Ajala 2001:180). There should be a continual emphasis on those issue that guarantee peace, justice, equity and mutual coexistence, while denouncing those that cause disaffection, frustration and distress in the system. If these steps are observed, the media would be a veritable tool for, not just crisis reporting; but crisis management through reporting. The Origin and Nature of the Nigerian Press Nigerian Media historians generally agree that the Nigerian Press has a Christian missionary origin. Goaded by the motive â€Å"to excite the intelligence of the people†¦and get them to read†, Henry Townsend established the Iwe Iroyin in 1859 (Duyile 1987 cited by Mohamed 2003:19). Shortly, after the establishment of this mission –oriented press, the nationality press came on stream. The primary objective of this era was to attack, decimate and summarily expel the British imperialists. It was hostile to the British colonial administration. The press in this era championed the liberation struggle, agitating for sovereignty and self-governance. It had a nationalist (not a nationality) focus. This era technically ended on September 30, 1960 (Ajuluchukwu 2000:14). Subsequently, the press had the task of engineering a new state and guiding its evolution into a viable venture. Ajuluchukwu (2000:42) speaks of the journalism of this post-independence era in this wise: â€Å"For our professional journalists, the transition experience (from colonial to civil rule) proved sickeningly tortuous, mainly because they apparently failed to be reconciled with the fact that the emergent democratic government of independent Nigeria was not an extension of the preceding imperialist despotism. In that lingering frame of mind, the press remained hostile to the government of indigenous Nigerians as they were to the expelled British Regime. It was as though the media in the First Republic regarded our independent federal administration as a government neither of the people nor by the people and not for the people. The independent print media of the period demonstrated a clear unwillingness to give a blanket support to the government† It is important to note the emphasis on independent media. Contrary to the independent editorial stance of private-owned media, the earlier established organsiations of the leading politicians of the three major regions – Eastern, Western, and Northern – were heavily partisan promoting the interest of the regions that had founded them. Mohammed (2003 p33-34) provides insight into the implications of this on the place and role of the press in this era: â€Å"In the Northern Region, such media establishments as the Hausa language publication Gaskiya Tafi Kwabo established in 1948, and remained New Nigeria in 1966; and Radio Television Kaduna, established in 1962†¦the Western Nigerian Television founded in 1959; the tribune group of newspapers, founded in 1951 by Chief Obafemi Awolowo; Sketch Newspapers established in 1964; Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe’s West African Pilot founded in 1937 and its chain of publications, in addition to the Eastern Nigerian Television established in 1960†¦The attainment of independence in 1960 and the devolution of power of the petty bourgeois politicians through the three major political parties (National People’s Congress, based in and serving the North, National Council for Nigerian and Cameroon in the east and Action Group in the west)†¦were to impact on the of the mass media in post – colonial Nigeria. Although they were once united in ‘fighting’ the colonial impostors, they became divided, serving partisan, ethnic and sectional interests. This may be regarded as the beginning of the nationality press in Nigeria. Currently, there exist in the Niger Delta streams of community-based newspapers that seek to foster the Niger Delta agenda. Most of them, based in Port Harcourt, a city which, for some strategic political and socio –economic reasons may be regarded as the defacto headquarters of the Niger Delta. Some of these papers include Argus, Hard Truth, and The Beacon, among others. Appearing in the tabloid form, most of them circulate on weekly basis. Most also have their circulation scope limited to Port Harcourt, but are no less effective in shaping the opinion of the people and presenting their position on issues plaguing the oil-rich area. It is important to state that the press in the Niger Delta will make an elaborate subject for another research. THE NIGERIAN MEDIA AND NATIONAL SECURITY There are two positions on what constitutes national security-the militarist perspective and the developmental perspective. The militarist perspective locates national security on the ability of a nation to deter attack or defeat it (Lippman cited in Odunlanmi, 1999 p.128). Here national security is seen as the protection of the territorial integrity of a nation by military might. Therefore, a nation should develop the necessary weaponry to curtail and prevent the invasion of her territory by enemy forces and ensure that her citizens enjoy physical freedom, political independence and that their minimum core values are protected (Odunlanmi, 1999:128). On the other hand, the developmental perspective sees national security beyond territorial security of a nation or physical safety of her citizens. As observed by Nweke (1988) : â€Å"There is no doubt that national security embodies the sovereignty of the state, the inviolability of its national boundaries, and the right to individual and collective self-defense against internal threat. But the state is secure only when the aggregate of people organized under it has the consciousness of belongings to a common sovereign political community; enjoy equal political freedom, human rights, economic opportunities, and when the state itself is able to ensure independence in its development and foreign policy† cited in Odunlanmi (1999 p129). Alli (2001 p201) agrees with this thought by advancing that security should be all-embracing and may include: ‘personal security and freedom from danger and crime’; ‘freedom from fear and anxiety’; ‘freedom from disease’ and ‘a general feeling of well-being’. Thus the people in a state must not just be said to have access or means of economic self-reliance, political participation, respect for basic human rights and dignity; they must be seen to enjoy these benefits. They must be seen to be sufficiently empowered to access and enjoy good food, good shelter, equal rights to political participations, right to freedom of expression and civil decent and other basic rights. Conclusion One of the basic causes of conflict in any society is the lack of free flow of communication. Each segment of society needs an outlet to vent the feelings and opinion on issues of the day. Sewant (2000 p20) speaks of civil institutions in society which are â€Å"uncommitted to any political party or ideology†. These institutions may be educational, religious, literary and cultural, sport, financial and economic, or social welfare. â€Å"These institutions†, he says, â€Å"occupy spaces in the social life not covered by the political institutions. There is a competition and even rivalry between the political and the civil institutions need a voice through the media.† Clearly, the media must provide a platform for civil discourse and dialogue in which people must air their views on matters that concern them. When opinions are suppressed, emotions repressed, and views ignored, the result may be a state of anarchy, whose perpetrators may want to excuse on the unavailability of â€Å"option[s] other than when opinions anxious to voice their own idealistic, even altruistic, goals† (Whittaker, 2004:3). Alli (2001:201) explains that â€Å"in a heterogeneous society like Nigeria, suppressed opinion is unhealthy to the foundation of state, it [breads] discontent and violent expression†. In his work on ‘the capacity of the media for social mobilizations’, Folarin (2000, p104) observes that â€Å"media’s potential to counter threats to stability, minimize panic and anxiety and maintain cultural and political consensus†. By simply giving people the opportunity to talk, a lot of problems may be avoided, curtailed or solved. The media must provide this opportunity. â€Å"When the media represents and speaks on behalf of all sections of the society, particularly the voiceless, it gives meaning to democracy as a truly representative regime† (Sewant, 2000:25). Secondly, the media have capacity to champion polices that encourage better living condition by promoting accountability, responsible leadership and good governance on the part of leaders. At the same time, should be on the vanguard of campaigns against any policies or actions that undermine national security. The media provides a platform for debates on public policies, so that both the rulers and the ruled have the opportunity to make inputs, the effect of which are far-reaching in strengthening democratic structures and guaranteeing national security. This is the correction role of the media. Further, programming in the media should also address the need for citizenship and cultural education, so that in a plural society, like Nigeria, one segment of the polity is able to understand, appreciate and respect the other cultures extant in the society. This will cause less tension. For this to happen, it is crucial to have a media that is plural, to the extent of being representative of the different interest in the state. Oyovbaire (2000, p103) advocates for pluralism of the press in terms of an operational base that is diffused and a programming philosophy that is liberal and accommodating of interest other than that of the proprietors. Unfortunately, as Oyovbaire argues, the media has not only been concentrated in the south-west of Nigeria, particularly Lagos State, it is often seen to hold and highlight sectional opinions. In promoting national security, the media must educate and enlighten the citizens on the factors that unite them, while avoiding and dislodging divisive tendencies and sentiments (Odunlanmi, 1999:132). How to cite Interpretation and judgement in news reporting., Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Corporate Philanthropy Cash Donations

Question: Discuss about theCorporate Philanthropyfor Cash Donations. Answer: Introduction: Corporate philanthropy is such actions of the corporations through which the donations and the resources are given in the charity to the organisations which are no profitable. It mainly consists of the cash donations and is also in other forms such as the use of the volunteer time of the company's employee and also few facilities of the companies for the welfare of the others. Donations are mainly handled by the corporations directly or by the foundations which are developed by the corporations (Meadows, 2004). Corporate philanthropy includes the fundraising matches, community grand, and the volunteer team grants. The corporate philanthropy includes the two ways in which the organisations can donate are the volunteer grant programs and the matching gift programs. Corporate Philanthropy Matching gift programs--is also known as the donating the money to the nonprofits. Many programmes related to the charity are also organised, where in the organisation matches the contribution which is done by individuals to the organisation. Volunteer grant programs: Such program is diverse from the matching gift program in a great way, as in such process the people will not directly help with the money to the non-profits organisations but will support the people who are will for such donation on the voluntary basis. In this program, the organisation will aid the non-profit organisation with the financial help where the workforce is agreeable to effort willingly regularly (Pribbenow, 2005). This programme works in two ways: The employees who work voluntarily for the no- profits are paid on hourly basis Such standards are fixed by the company where if the employee works voluntarily for certain fixed hours then the company will support financially to the non-profit organisation. Many of the big and the well-established organisations are trying to apply such practices and policies which will be beneficial for the Corporate Philanthropy. Normally, the best practices and the policies will help you in a better understanding of its position in the company and in calculating the amount that is to be given in the form of the charity or donation. For the calculation of the charity, one can follow the following formula which is to multiply 1.2 timesnet income as per the tax of last year and to conclude the least amount of the cash budget for the next years donation (Ihl and Vossen, 2014). Example of Corporate Philanthropy; Sales Force Here will discuss the company Sales force which is the worldwide online software company and is based in Australia. The other world big companies act as the inspiration and the mentor for promoting and encouraging the sales force for the corporate philanthropy. The foundation's sales force was originated by the company 15 years before based on the simple principle to donate 1% of the company time, product, and equity for improving the communities which are under privilege and need the support all over the globe (Generosity Magazine, 2015). Sales force and their foundation with the organisation works on the model known as the 1-1-1 which also shares the donation with the other companies who also pledges to share its 1% (Salesforce.org, 2016). This concept was originated by the co-founder and the president SuzanneDebianca, who is also on the boards of the other councils. She aims to expand this message all over the globe and to inspire the other organisation to work for the cause of th e corporate philanthropy in the managed way. In this segment, she receives a great positive response from Atlassian which is one of the technical companies of Australia. In the starting the, Dibianca studies about the present methodologies of philanthropic which are practiced all over the globe, observe the shortcomings and developed such systems which helped in improving the final results. Philanthropic Model The integrated philanthropy model of the Sales Force supports the Play works to get better the well-being and the health of the children in all the schools across the nation. Salesforce.org follows the simple idea of the; influences the people, resources and the technology to support the communities around the world in improving the conditions or for their betterment. In this model, the Technology offers the discounted and the donated technologies to the non-profits organisation. Through us programmes the Higher Ed institutionsand the non-profit corporate is given the access by the company to use the product of the Sales Force Company for expanding collectively. This programme includes the subscriptions of the 10 donations and also a great discount on further more subscriptions or on the services and the products (Salesforce.com, 2016). Under this model, the employees also have the freedom to take the decision that for what cause and where the employee can volunteer. The organisation empowers the employees with the volunteer time of the seven days in one financial year, grant of almost $10,000to the best volunteers of the financial year donating for the non-profit organisation, an access to the team grants for sporting the volunteer activities of the employees (Salesforce.org, 2016). The resources in the model also help the providing the grant or the donations to the non-profit organisation which is inspired by the communities, technologies, and the employees. In one of the research it was concluded that under the existing practices of the model, it was cleared that three of the areas are there where improvements can be made by the people. These improvements are of the prime importance and are to be a pledge by the companies to share 1 % of the all the three people, products, and money for the growth of the underprivileged communities. Theory of Corporate Philanthropy to Planned Behaviour: Many of the scholars have researched that corporate philanthropy in a great way helps in the companies discriminatory responsibilities.They also tried to discover the relation between the philanthropy and the outcomes which are related to the organisation reputation and the financial profit. Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB) gives the foundation which is theoretically based on the model of development which will help in the better understanding of the behaviours related to the corporate philanthropy (Frost and Stone, 2009). Philanthropy as a Strategy: Philanthropy also works as the strategic movement which helps or supports the organisation in improving its strategic position. Sales Force from the founding of the organisation has contributed almost $128+ million grants or more, and around 1.6 million hours for servicing the community and provided the donations of products further 29,000 nonprofits and to the institutions of higher education (Miller, 2008). Corporate philanthropy and the altruism market: Today there is the market of the philanthropic which is also known as a market for altruism here the non-profit organisations, government, and the profit organisations contend with each other for the best. Corporation should treat in the philanthropy when there is anextra advantage over the non-profit corporations and the government (Henderson and Malani, n.d.). The government should also take into consideration certain points while setting tax policyand avoid discrimination between nonprofits and corporations that undertake good work. Conclusion Philanthropy is used this day as the base refers advertising plus the building as well as thepromoting of the position and the image of the organisation. Yet another program like the cause-related sales and marketing where all of the corporate spending are deductible, the organisations do not get any kind of the added advantage for getting indulged in the philanthropy refer their comparison to the various business purposes. The corporations in the present times can use some effort of assisting the non-profit companies to carefully improve the context of the competition. Various companies have also started to use the context focus of the philanthropy which targets the social and the economic benefits. It can be the easiest and the most effective manner so as to improve the competitive market context (Campbell and Slack, 2007). Like, Providing money wise help to the University can be much far more safe and economical as compared to the in-house kind of the training thus as per the bene fits from the philanthropy, these companies are even able to move hand in hand to the non-profit companies. Charity can also help in improving the education and the training.One of the Production Company in Los Angeles in recent times skilled the cluster of individuals who will help them in their production company. Here the Company targeted equally the economic and the social benefits. The social benefit incorporated the enhanced education system and better opportunities for employment for the inferior class and the economic benefit included the individuals especially skilled for such purpose. The initiatives of philanthropy also help in getting better the superiority of the life.Salesforce.org is dedicated to back-up the Nonprofits and Higher-Ed Institutes for finding the most favourable solution related to their needs or requirements. The Goal of the company is to improve the efficiencies, programs, operations and streamline processes, and also to accelerate the overall impact on the organisation. References Campbell, D. and Slack, R. (2007). Corporate "Philanthropy Strategy" and "Strategic Philanthropy": Some Insights From Voluntary Disclosures in Annual Reports.Business Society, 47(2), pp.187-212. Frost, L. and Stone, S. (2009). Community-Based Collaboration: A Philanthropic Model for Positive Social Change.Foundation Rev, 1(1), pp.55-68. Generosity Magazine. (2015).Pledge 1%: Is it the revolution corporate philanthropy has been waiting for? - Generosity Magazine. [online] Available at: https://www.generositymag.com.au/pledge-1-is-it-the-revolution-corporate-philanthropy-has-been-waiting-for/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2016]. Henderson, M. and Malani, A. (n.d.). Corporate Philanthropy and the Market for Altruism.SSRN Electronic Journal. Ihl, C. and Vossen, A. (2014). Paying for Philantrophy? The Prosocial Boundaries of Monetary Incentives in Idea Co-creation.Academy of Management Proceedings, 2014(1), pp.15620-15620. Meadows, C. (2004). Philanthropic choice and donor intent: Freedom, responsibility, and public interest.New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 2004(45), pp.95-102. Miller, J. (2008). The ongoing legitimacy project: corporate philanthropy as protective strategy.European Management Review, 5(3), pp.151-164. Pribbenow, P. (2005). Public character: Philanthropic fundraising and the claims of accountability.New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 2005(47), pp.13-27. Salesforce.com. (2016).Integrated Corporate Philanthropy: the 1-1-1 Model- - Salesforce Australia. [online] Available at: https://www.salesforce.com/au/company/salesforceorg/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2016]. Salesforce.org. (2016).Pledge 1% - Salesforce.org. [online] Available at: https://www.salesforce.org/pledge-1/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2016].