Saturday, May 23, 2020
1) Our physical appearance communicates nonverbally how professional we are. Dressing professionally gives the perception of increased status, competence or knowledge, trustworthiness, and the ability to influence others. Adorning artifacts signals to others our style and our unique sense of self. Although, too many artifacts for a professional woman could give the wrong impression. Acceptable jewelry for women are button earrings, chain chokers, and necklaces; however, these are less acceptable for men. Our vocalics which includes pitch, rate, and volume help us mean what we say. If an employee is frustrated, their vocalics will reveal the emotion to the supervisor. For gestures and body movement, we use emblems, illustrators, and regulators. Emblems have direct verbal translations. Holding your hand up with the palm facing someone translated verbally is Ã¢â¬Å"stop.Ã¢â¬ Illustrators complement the verbal message by clarifying or intensifying your message such as pointing with your finger in the direction while verbally giving the directions. Facial expressions, including the eyes, convey emotions. When we are angry, sad, or happy, our face will show it. Eye contact of 60 to 70 percent can also improve your effectiveness as a leader or project self-esteem and trustworthiness. Maintaining the appropriate proximity of others expresses our respect for them and how familiar we are with them. We allow close friends and family in our personal space; however, for professionalShow MoreRelatedWhat Does Character Look Like?810 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesjudgment on the appearance of others can greatly influence or even completely determine his initial treatment of the individual. Recent studies have proved Ã¢â¬Å"that physically attractive individuals are thought to possess more sociably desirable personalities and higher moral standards than those who are physically unattractiveÃ¢â¬ (Kong, Yan, Hong). This very common phenomenon would not raise issues if everyone was able to choose their physical features. Considering that in reality, physical traits are givenRead MoreEnglish Paper: Rhetorical Analysis of Frankenstein802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMary Shelley makes us question who really the Ã¢â¬Å"monsterÃ¢â¬ is. Is it the creature or Victor? While the creature does commit murder, he does not understand the consequences of his actions. He is like an infant who is unfortunately left to learn about the workings of society, and his place in it, on his own. He has no companions and feels a great sense of loneliness and abandonment. The creature voices his frustration and anger and seems to try to project his feelings of guilt onto Victor, as if to showRead MoreHow Health Orientated Is A Group Of Students Essay732 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesin this course. There were 25 participants both female and male from diverse nationalities. We asked the participants to fill out a 30 minute questionnaire that consisted of 12 questions regarding their health. These questions were measured using a 1-7 scale where 1 = not at all, 4 = moderately, 7 = definitely. Questions 1-5 in our questionnaire were added to create a total health orientation score. Based on a median split of the total score the class was divided into high and low orientation groupsRead MoreEssay on Human Sexuality and Gender Differences1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdecision in selecting romantic partners. Through analysis of the surveys, it has discovered that men and women are more similar then expected. On average, both men and women responded that they put more weight in personality traits then they do in physical traits. From person to person, one thing that seems to differ the most is values. Where one person may put a great deal of importance, another might not put any. Such is the case in which people choose romantic partners. An attribute one personRead MorePhysical Appearance in Non-Verbal Communication728 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPhysical Appearance in Non-Verbal Communication Christian Ford ENG 223 March 9, 2013 Christon Walker Physical Appearance in Non-Verbal Communication Non-verbal communication has many facets, but typically Physical Appearance can usually make or break certain situations. In the following we will discuss in some detail what non-verbal communication is and how physical appearance plays a part. Why does appearance matter? Does it affect our views of other cultures? Will it make it easier to acceptRead MoreMedias Influence on Body Image Essay example1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesplump women. A plump and healthy woman was respected as it reflected wealth and a success. Whereas in the recent years slim women are more valued according to Jennifer A cited in OÃ¢â¬â¢dea. body image discourages one from participating in physical activities. Physical activities could be participating in sports where one has a feeling of being Ã¢â¬Å"too fatÃ¢â¬ or feeling that one has to achieve a certain look before they can participate (Paxton , 2002, P. 4). 2.1 Theory Researchers have utilized variousRead MoreBeauty : When The Other Dance Is The Self1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe Other Dance is the SelfÃ¢â¬ how her experience with her eye being noticeably damaged had caused her to forget the value of her inner beauty. Similarly, Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s explains in Ã¢â¬Å"StrangersÃ¢â¬ that the media has highlighted the importance of physical appearance instead of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s character upon meeting them for the first time. The subject in Johannes VermeerÃ¢â¬â¢s Study of a Young Woman is not conventionally beautiful but Vermeer saw something valuable in the subject that caused him to take his timeRead MoreWhat Is San Faca Essay1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages but is this image really that unsightly? The answer is no. There is only one issue - the squinting and is that even something that is worth being considered ugly? By definition ugly means; unpleasant or repulsive, especially in appearance. Therefore, the next question to ask is, does this image even fit that definition? Again, the answer is no. It is hurtful in a way to think of how a simple childhood grievance impacted general opinion. For years, I despised taking photos in the sun and on thatRead MorePhysical Appearance Versus True Personality Depicted in Shakespeares Macbeth871 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessociety, and judging people by their appearance usually results in an inaccurate view of what is on the inside. Often times, the physical appearance that is bothersome at first glance fades away as one gets to know the personÃ¢â¬â¢s true personality. From then on one will realize how important it is to get to know someone before judging them instead of jumping to conclusions prior to actually knowing them. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy, Macbeth, the theme of appearances arises multiple times in the judgmentsRead MoreBenefits Of Mate Selection Preferences1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesable to study people and find out respective trends. Previous research, such as the piece of research that was done by Susan Sprecher, Quintin Sullivan and Elaine Hartfield, Ã¢â¬ËGender Differences Examined in a National SampleÃ¢â¬â¢, finds that youth and physical attractiveness were more of an importance to men, and earning abilities to women. They also found such willingness between two races (black and white people), has been mostly consistent to each other, but with white women less willing to marry a
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Medieval Art In the art world, the medieval periods were traditionally though to be the unproductive phase of Europe between the decline of Rome and the Renaissance. Our modern feelings toward medieval art are far more appreciative. The main intent of Medieval art was to express Christianity which was also a common bond between a wide spread and diverse Europe. For this reason most of the art found from medieval times originated in monasteries and churches. European art during the Middle Ages can be divided into four periods. These four periods include Celto-Germanic art which ranged from 400 to 800 A.D. and was important in metal work. Carolingian art ranged from 750 to 987 A.D. overlapping 50 years of the Celto-Germanic period. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Carolingian style is of small dimensions. Most of this style pulls its influence from Byzantine artwork. Ã¢â¬Å"An explanation for the sudden change from Celto-Germanic styling can be attributed to the new minuscule form of writing, remarkable for its clarity and formÃ¢â¬ (Pioch). Metal work from this time period is rare although writings tell us that goldsmiths and enamel workers remained active. Romanesque The art of the Romanesque period was characterized by the revival of sculptures and fresco painting. These were common elements of architecture. Along with those architectural advancements the period produced frequent examples of realism as well as a heightened emphasis on emotion and fantasy. The crusades acted as a main contributor to this time period lending more religious and revolutionary imagery. Examples of Romanesque sculpture are dated back to the last decade of the eleventh century and then first decades of the twelfth. Ã¢â¬Å"The primary source of artistic patronage was provided by the monastic institutions, for whom sculptors executed large relief carvings for the decoration of church portals and richly ornate capitals for cloistersÃ¢â¬ (Cleaver 156) Another aspect of the Romanesque revival was the production of metalwork objects, of which many outstanding examples, such as crucifixes, reliquary shrines, and candlesticks, are still preserved in church treasu ries. It wasShow MoreRelatedEssay on Medieval Art1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the art world, the medieval periods were traditionally though to be the unproductive phase of Europe between the decline of Rome and the Renaissance. Our modern feelings toward medieval art are far more appreciative. The main intent of Medieval art was to express Christianity which was also a common bond between a wide spread and diverse Europe. For this reason most of the art found from medieval times originated in monasteries and churches. European art during the Middle Ages can be dividedRead MoreRelationship Between Religion and Art in Medieval, Renaissance and Contemporary Times2657 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesold belief that a perfect soul meant a perfect outward appearance (Smart 122). She is famous and celebrated, and is visited by Christians from every nation. In another part of the world, The Holy Virgin Mary by Chris Ofili resides in the Brooklyn Art Museum. It is a painting of Mary atop a pile of elephant feces, the Virgin herself made with the same substance, while surrounded by cutouts from pornographic magazines. The work has stirred much controversy but today still sits in the museum for theRead MoreArt : Comparing Medieval Art to Renaissance Art1248 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesArt Appreciation Name: Chadwick West Instructor: xxxxxxxxxxxx Course: Art Appreciation, ART 137 School: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx December 19, 2012 Comparing Medieval Art to Renaissance Art Medieval art period Medieval art covers a large scope of time. The period covered over 1000 years of art in Europe, Middle East and North Africa. The period was characterized by major art movements based on national art and regional art. There was alsoRead MoreThe Heart : Reading And Writing The Medieval Subject976 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof the Heart: Reading and Writing the Medieval SubjectÃ¢â¬ , written by Eric Jager, he states that in the world of visual art in the medieval era, Ã¢â¬Å"book of the heartÃ¢â¬ was a commonly used image. Mr. Jager point out the different trends the term Ã¢â¬Å"book of the heartÃ¢â¬ goes through. Focusing on how the term went from literal to a commonly used figurative phrase, he tries to show how a frequently used term made such an impact on the past and the present. Using medieval art, literature, and other authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ worksRead MoreThe Importance Of Childhood In Medieval Art917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesearly paintings and pictures. Aries (1996) pointed out Ã¢â¬Å"Medieval art did until about the twelfth century did not know childhood or did not attempt to portray itÃ¢â¬ (p.33, which demonstrates that ancient artists did not view or assumed the value of childhood during the time. In this regard, this paper outlines how medieval art disregarded the importance of childhood by ignoring it and portraying children as a less important aspect of their art. Art is believed to have started way before the coming of ChristRead MoreEssay on Innovation During the Middle Ages 2066 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThe Middle Ages, contrary to its name, was a dynamic period of innovations. Throughout this period, visual arts were employed to communicate important messages to the public as well as private wealthy patrons. A variety of mediums were used to disseminate ideas. Though, the sense of decorum shifted, the purpose of these moralizing images of religious figures remained the same. Art was, as it still is an extremely useful and powerful tool for both religious and political advancements. The two piecesRead MoreArt : An Important Center Of European Medieval Art1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIt is amazing how something that is recognized as an important center of European Medieval art is looked upon by most of the world as a place where you can snap a cool picture of yourself Ã¢â¬ËleaningÃ¢â¬â¢ on the Tower of Pisa. A place detailed, yet decayedÃ¢â¬ ¦ a place with four monuments, yet recognized as one centerÃ¢â¬ ¦ a place representing life, yet death. The aura surrounding this square makes me just want to sit on the grass and read or write or think. I just want the stony intricate building to envelop myRead MoreEssay on Medieval vs. Renaissance Art887 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMedieval vs. Renaissance Art Art during the Italian Renaissance differed from art during the Middle Ages. The two have contrasting characteristics and concepts. To the people in the medieval world, religion was their life. Everything in daily life focused around the church and God (Modern World 164). Medieval culture influenced the arts; this was evident in the religious themes. During the Italian Renaissance, painters and other artists focused on the portrayal of a more humanistic way ofRead MoreEssay about The Medieval Synthesis in the Arts 1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Medieval Synthesis in the Arts ca. (1000-1300) thirteen century Gothic Church. The Chartres Cathedral Church is one of the most important in France. After a fire in 1134 destroy the town of Chartres the west front of the cathedral. The rebuilding of the west facade between 1145-50. It was once known as Notre Dame de Chartres but today is known as Chartres Cathedral. This church has the essential parts of a Christian basilica. The cathedr al is locates in the town of Chartres, Northwester FranceRead MoreMedieval Art And Architecture Of The Gothic Architecture909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe term Gothic comes from Giorgio Vaasari, he used the term to ridicule the medieval art and architecture. Putting the art aside, the architecture of the period was quite awesome, cathedrals stand today as a testament to this. The Gothic style was birthed in France as the Romanesque style evolved. The Saint-Denis was the first Gothic cathedral; it was designed Abbot Suger in 1144. Gothic Cathedrals were marvels in their time as they towered above the cities, they frequently reached over 150 meters
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
INTRODUCTION In this chapter I will undertake a review of theories relevant to the theme of this work. Various scholarly positions on the theory of media representation, media and social responsibility and pattern of crisis reporting will be thoroughly examined. I will equally review scholarly works on the origin and nature of the Nigerian press. We will write a custom essay sample on Interpretation and judgement in news reporting. or any similar topic only for you Order Now MEDIA REPRESENTATION The media in any society serve as the window through which the wider world is viewed. They give and account of reality but not the reality in the real sense. Positions of various scholars in the field of media studies reveal that what we read, hear or watch on the media is representation of reality and as such, the media have the ability to and actually do construct the reality through their coverage and reportage of events. The knowledge and perception of people about events, issues and objects within and beyond their geographical settings are usually formed and shaped by media representation of such events, issues and objects. The idea that the media utilize language, semiotic and visual images to construct realities has been extensively written and researched in various works and among various scholars in the field of media and communication studies. While some scholars have espoused cultural views of media representation (Hall, 1997) others have adopted the notion of race (OÃ¢â¬ â¢Shaughnessy 1997, Ferguson 2002, Acosta-Alzure 2003) language, and identity (Rayner 2001). To Hall (1997, p. 17) Ã¢â¬Å"Representation is the production of the meaning of the concepts in our mind through language and it is the link between concepts that enables us to refer to either the real world of objects, people or eventsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . The concept of representation according to Hall (ibid) entails Ã¢â¬Å"using language to say something meaningful about or to represent the world meaningfully to other peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦it is an essential part of the process by which meaning is produced and exchanged between members of a cultureÃ¢â¬ . Hall describes representation as a phenomenon that involves the use of language, signs and images to symbolise and represent objects. The use of language in cultural studies can be reflective when it reflects the existing meaning of an object, intentional when it reflects the personally intended meaning and constructionist when meaning is constructed through the use of language (Hall, 1997). Hall (1997, p.15) examines the concepts of representation in terms of the Ã¢â¬Å"circuit of cultureÃ¢â¬ which implies that representation, as a concept in cultural studies Ã¢â¬Å"connects meaning and language to cultureÃ¢â¬ The media utilize a great deal of images, signs and language to describe and report events or objects to their audiences and their use of such elements serve as the basis upon which the knowledge and perception of audiences about the objects and events being reported rest. Representation therefore dwells on how the media create meaning and form knowledge through the use of language and visual images. In their view, Acosta Alzuru and Roushanzamir (2003, p.47) assert that Ã¢â¬Å"Representation constructs meaning by connecting the world language and live experiences. By performing these connections representation does not reflect the frame of the world but that it constitutes the worldÃ¢â¬ . In their view, Rayner et al (2001, p.63) describe representation as Ã¢â¬Å"the process by which the media present to us the real worldÃ¢â¬ . They further assert that Ã¢â¬Å"there is a wide philosophical debate about what constitutes Ã¢â¬ËrealityÃ¢â¬â¢ and whether, in fact, reality ultimately exists. If however, we assume, for the convenience of looking at representation, that there is an external reality, then, one key function of the media is to represent that reality to us, the audienceÃ¢â¬ . One issue central to various postulations of scholars on media representation is the inability of the media to reproduce the exact real word. News generally is an account of reality, not reality itself, thus most media organizations and journalists often fall prey of adding their interpretations and judgment to certain news stories with a view to creating meaning. INTERPRETATION AND JUDGEMENT IN NEWS REPORTING In reporting and presenting issues, media often add their own judgment and interpretations thereby defining the public knowledge of certain events. On the other hand, audiences also subject media messages to some interpretations which explain why they are of the view that media bias is possible in their reporting of events. According to Hawk (1992, p.1) Ã¢â¬Å"there are no such things as facts without interpretationÃ¢â¬ . This assertion is supported by Said (1981, p.154) as he succinctly observes that: Ã¢â¬Å"All knowledge that is about human society and not about natural world is historical knowledge and therefore rests upon judgment and interpretation. This is not to say that facts and data are non-existent but that facts get their importance from what is made upon interpretationÃ¢â¬ . In their coverage and reportage of events media therefore give their meaning and identify for readers those events that are considered important. Relating these assertions to the Nigerian press representation of Niger-Delta Crisis, it is evident that media tend to give meaning and interpretation to the activities of the Niger-Delta militants vis-a-vis government reactions and perception of the general public. Based on the argument and counter argument between African and non-African analysts on the western media coverage of Africa, especially in the area of media subjecting their reports to judgement and interpretations, scholars have emphasized the need for news analysis. In his work Ã¢â¬Å"Islam and the West in the Mass Media, Hafez (2000) points out that international news coverage can be analysed by focusing on the textual patterns, linguistic feature, as well as the arrangement of facts, arguments and frames in foreign reporting to understand whether or not such report is based on objectivity or sensationalism (p.27). Empirical evidences based on existing views of various scholars reveal that in understanding the causes and effects of media coverage, it is important to examine the individual perception of the journalists and the orientation of the mass media in relation to the object being reported. As argued by Falola (2000, p.30), Ã¢â¬Å"most foreign media use certain stereotypes and images to represent African states as epitome of vampirical authoritarian governance, parasitical political elites, fierce religious and tribal animosities and endemic sickness and miseryÃ¢â¬ . Having examined the theory of media representation vis-a-vis the discourse of media interpretation and judgements in news reporting, I proceed to discuss the media representation of Africa within the context of the theory media representation. THE MEDIA AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The social responsibility theory is based on the notion that the media must perform its role bearing in mind Ã¢â¬Å"public interestÃ¢â¬ . McQuails (2005:164) rightly observes that the concept of public interest is simple yet fraught with many disconnected views about what it entails or should entail. In Nigeria, for instance, the issue of resources control has been a subject for many debates and cause for protracted conflict. What would constitute Ã¢â¬Å"public interest?Ã¢â¬ Should the press promote the position of the proponents of resource control, or should it support those who say every State should share in equal measure from the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s oil wealthMcQuail, however quickly clears the fog by stating that the mass media must operate by the same principles that govern other units of society; principles which are justice, fairness, democracy, and prevailing notions of desirable social and cultural values. Any practice in society that undermines these principles singly or collectively constitutes sabotage of Ã¢â¬Å"public interestÃ¢â¬ and may correctly suffer report from the media. Further, McQuail identifies the factor that may affect the promotion of public interest which he defines in terms of cultural, political, professional and commercial interests. On culture-induced effects, there is the institutional entrenchment of a culture of apathy and distrust for the people of other tribes or ethnic groups. The Nigerian societyÃ¢â¬â¢s penchant for religious and ethnic conflicts is an unfortunate testimony to this fact. And since the News must carry the stories, including that of casualties, there is the tendency for reporting to cause an escalation of the crisis. Liebes and Kampf (2004:79) captured it this way: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦.whereas politicians and representatives of the elite are free to address the media of any time (crossing the threshold through the Ã¢â¬Å"front doorÃ¢â¬ ), the only chance of radical groups to invade the screen is via the Ã¢â¬Å"back doorÃ¢â¬ , that is, by the use of violenceÃ¢â¬ ¦the more violence they created, the greater the chance of crossing into the screen and being viewed by the public. The chance, however, is also greater for the coverage to be more negative, and therefore acts as a boomerangÃ¢â¬ . The political inhibition to Ã¢â¬Å"public interestÃ¢â¬ reporting may play out in the bias of the practicing journalist who might have a stake in the issues for which the group is agitating. How does a journalist from Niger Delta maintain neutrality on the issue of resource distribution and control when it has such profound effects on his life and that of his familyOr how does a journalist from Katsina State maintain neutrality when the ceding of resource control to the generating states means that his stateÃ¢â¬â¢s allocation may be highly reduced. Beard (2000, p18) is of the position that Ã¢â¬Å"to expect that a political journalist or politician can tell the truth is problematic, because such an expectation fails to take account of the fact that both the creator and the receiver of the text bring ideological values to itÃ¢â¬ . He explains further that reporting capitalizes on certain language forms such as metaphors, metonymies, analogies and transitive, to show subtle or blatant sympathy for or apathy to various ideological positions extant in society (Beard, 2000:25) However, Keeble (2005:269) advocates for journalism practice that is found on universal principles of honesty, fairness, respect for the privacy, the avoidance of discrimination and conflict of interest. But he also correctly observes that Ã¢â¬Å"cultures and political systems around the globe throw up very different ethical challenges for journalists.Ã¢â¬ It is difficult to maintain neutrality in the face of threats, especially when such threats reach the point of fatality (Hartley 1982, p84; Tumber, 2004, p199), but the universal ideas require a reach toward neutrality and objectivity. Another factor that affects the responsibility of the media to the society is low level of professionalism.Professionalism may be seen as a commitment to the highest standard of excellence in the practice of journalism. It is a combination of the finest skills with the highest ethical conduct. This ideal contrasts sharply with the prevailing shallow approach to coverage and analysis of issues of public interest as seen in sections of the Nigerian media. The rate of unemployment and the abysmal state of corruption and nepotism have created an opportunity for unqualified individuals to practice journalism. The result, as Gujbawu (2002, p71) rightly observes, is the pressÃ¢â¬â¢ increasing penchant for being a mouth piece for the ruling elite, and at the expense of society; a tendency for writing media content that misinforms, misleads, confuses and destroys society. In view of this, a classic work on theories of mass media has shown what many media problems are attributable to the edu cation of reporters and editors and poor preparation before undertaking assignments. Observable errors of fact may lead to questioning the authenticity of an entire report, which further brings to question the credibility of the media as dependable custodians of public conscience (Severin Tankard, 2001, p314-5). Another factor identified by McQuail (2005, p164) as the bane of Ã¢â¬Å"public interestÃ¢â¬ journalism is commercialism. Scholars agree that there is an increasing tendency toward monopolizing the media into the hands of a few rich business and media moguls (Dominick 1994, p109; Aufdeheide, 2004, p333 Stevenson, 2005 p40; Harrison, 2006, p164). These investors are engaged in stiff competition for market share with attendant repercussion. As noted by Folarin (1999, p27), the commercialists press Ã¢â¬Å"worships at the altar of profit and consumerism which often vitiate the ideals of social responsibility.Ã¢â¬ The profit motif makes the media vulnerable to the ideologies of big advertisers while consumerism lowers values since the media must give the public what it wants. Under this circumstance, commercial interests precedence over public good. Albeit, the social responsibility theory holds that the while the press must be free, it must also be adequate or responsible. The basic tenets of the socially responsible press, following the recommendations of the Robert Hutchins Commission of 1947, are thus outlined in (Severin and Tankard, 2001 p314; McQuails, 2005:171): A socially responsible press should provide a full, truthful, comprehensive and intelligent account of the dayÃ¢â¬â¢s events in a context which gives them meaning. It should serve as a forum for the exchange of comments and criticism as a common carrier of the public expression, raising conflict to the plane of public discourse. A socially responsible press should give a representative picture of constituent groups in the society while presenting the goals and values of society, issues that have relevance to the well-being of the local community. A press with this kind of orientation is what is needed in a crisis Ã¢â¬âprone, or crisis Ã¢â¬âridden society. Coverage of crisis in Nigeria requires that the media be truthful, comprehensive and balanced, representing the views and interests of the constituent groups in the federal state that it is. PATTERNS OF CRISIS REPORTING Pattern of reporting is a description of the differences in the reportage of news stories resulting from the different perspectives from which people view events. The patterns could be intrinsic or extrinsic, rather than being opposites, they are simply two sides of the same coin. Intrinsic patterns are the latent patterns that reflect the peculiarity of a paper, those features that differentiate one paper from others. These features are manifested in the language and the point of view that a paper expresses. It is seen in the way a paper challenges or reinforces certain stereotypes; the overt political position a paper adopts or discards (McNair, 2005:35). As Curran (2002:34) would suggest, the location of a news story within the frame of reference of a political position, by attribution, is a subtle way by which journalism advances one political opinion against another. On the other hand is the extrinsic pattern which is the obvious physical characteristics of a news report as it appears in the paper. This is marked by such features as the choice of a front-page story. The choice of a front-page story reveals the level of importance a newspaper ascribes to a story as against other stories. It is also manifest in the amount of space given to a story. A story that is considered as important will have depth of discussion, attributions, background information; a detailed description of the events and persons in the story. Also, an important story in the news is marked by extensive non-news editorial commentaries in the form of features, letters to the editor, opinion articles, and brazen editorials by the paper. This is where societal views are extracted and harnessed to set further agenda for public discourse to provide ideas for policy makers. Meanwhile, there are certain features that characterize crisis stories. One is that a crisis naturally commands prominence. In any crisis the suffering of the victim usually engages sympathy. This human interest factor makes the story popular, thus giving it prominence. The other factor is drama. Simply put, drama is action, deed or performance that interest people presented on a stage or theater. In this case, the stage for the drama in a social crisis is the public sphere (Abcaran Klotz, 2002:19). Drama in the news describes the day to day actions that occur in human societies, actions that are considered worthy of mediation. The crisis story is typically drama-laden. Crisis reporting captures the intrigues, blackmails, betrayal, protests, etc., that happen in manÃ¢â¬â¢s experience. Furthermore, the crisis story has conflict Ã¢â¬â the inability of players in the social sphere to reach consensus on issues of ideology, personal or group interest, and opinion. This may degenerat e into violence, often of fatal dimension (Veer, 2004:9). The interest is heightened by the impact of the conflict on human life and property. CRISIS COVERAGE AS CRISIS MANAGEMENT So far I have used the terms Ã¢â¬Ëcrisis and Ã¢â¬ËconflictÃ¢â¬â¢ interchangeably. The Chambers English Dictionary has defined crisis as Ã¢â¬Å"a crucial or decisive moment Ã¢â¬ ¦.a time of difficulty and distressÃ¢â¬ , while conflict is described as Ã¢â¬Å"an unfortunate coincidence or opposition; violent collisionÃ¢â¬ , some synonyms provided are Ã¢â¬Å"to fight; to contend; to be in oppositionÃ¢â¬ . Conflict may be an overflow of crises. As it occurs in the Niger Delta, we may see a crisis from ethnic, political or economic dimensions, occurring hardly mutually exclusively, and manifesting in the form of protests, walkouts, strikes and often such violent expressions as killing, maiming, shooting, and kidnapping on which the study is focused. Simply put, conflict, as manifested at the community level in the Niger Delta, is the expression of disaffection and outburst of tension built up over time, due to denied or subverted expectations. Conflicts may be violent or non-violent. Reporting crisis takes different forms depending on the nature of the society in terms of its social structures and ethnic composition i.e. homogenous, plural, or multi-cultural societies. Owens-Ibie (2002, p33) citing Corbett, (1992) shows that Ã¢â¬Å"media in homogenous societies, characterized by an inclination toward consensus, tend to air conflict less than those in plural societies. Owen Ã¢â¬âIbie goes on to state that Nigeria as a heterogeneous society tends to play out this trend. The media in the country is a terrain for airing conflict, and such coverage is a reflection of the socio-cultural and other diversities that the country typifiesÃ¢â¬ . This statement cannot be untrue if weighed against the historical background of the Nigerian state, which comprise different ethnic nationalities fused against their wishes by the colonial explorers, a contrivance in mischief (Isoumonach and Gaskia, 2001, p55). This history has therefore been characterized by the constant strive for relevance and self-determination by each component of the amalgamation, especially the so Ã¢â¬â called minority groups. Expectedly, the media assumes a center state in these agitations, a hegemonic stance at that. Hartley (2002:99) explains that: Ã¢â¬Å"The crucial aspect of the notion of hegemony is not that it operates by forcing people against their will or better judgment to concede power to the already powerful, but that it works by winning consent to ways of making sense of the world that do in fact make senseÃ¢â¬ ¦..the concept is used to show how everyday meanings, representations and activities are organized and made sense of in such a way as to render the interests of a dominant Ã¢â¬ËblocÃ¢â¬â¢ into an apparently natural and unarguable general interest, with a claim of everyoneÃ¢â¬ . Two basic approaches for assuming hegemonic control quickly come to the fore. One is the media approach; the other is the people approach. With particular reference to the Niger Delta, what Curran (2002:150) refers to as Ã¢â¬Ëdominant discourseÃ¢â¬â¢ finds a fitting application in the agitations of the Niger Delta people. There has been a determined resolve to keep the media (and every occasion that promises media attention) awash with messages on resource control, fiscal federalism and equal rights to national political leadership. The expected outcome is to allow national and global attention, to the plight of Niger Delta people in the Nigerian state. The people approach is exploited when non-elite groups constitute themselves into Ã¢â¬Å"organizationsÃ¢â¬ which are used as sources of news and comment by the media. While non-elite group, have in general restricted access to the media, this can be modified through improvements in organization (Curran, 2002 p152-153). Although this modification has come to be in the negative sense, the organization of various pressure groups and even militia forces has brought much media attention to the course of the Niger Delta in an unprecedented state. It is true that media coverage tends to favor the elite, official position. As this work shows, the news is most times written from the official stand point. By its very nature, the official is furnished with paraphernalia of office that guarantees that he makes a statement on a particular issue either in person or by proxy. The Nigerian President, for instance, has a Special Assistance for Media and Publicity, Special Adviser for Media and Pub licity and host of other officials; not counting that the services of the entire Ministry of Information and National Orientation and its quasi-organizations which include the Radio and TV networks, are at his disposal. It is therefore an onerous task for the other parties in the Niger Delta to beat this communicative advantage. Should the media then give a voice only to the elite party to the exclusion of the otherThis model shows that crisis management should be in three phases. The first phase or pre-crisis phase is the time when a crisis is anticipated. Having established that in a plural, multi-cultural state like Nigeria is conflict prone, the press should always anticipate crisis by observing the signals that portend disturbance in social equation. Then the media must provide such coverage as will help to nip the crisis in the bud. The media should identify, expose, educate and enlighten citizen on those things, persons, or policies that constitute a threat to national securi ty (Odunlanmi, 1999, p132; Galadima 2002:P62). The next phase will be the in-crisis stage, when a nation is facing a condition of distress. Galadima (2002, p60-62) presents the atmosphere that may characterize conflict reporting. First is that reporting advertently or inadvertently gives publicity to the crisis. Reporting tends to win appreciation or engender resentment by the different parties involved. This is because certain interests are either being protected or subverted if reporting is seen as biased, it could precipitate very unwelcomed reactions. The Nigerian experience shows that the parties that are not favored by a report may descend into unleashing terror on the reporter or the organization he/she represents, and even unworthy members of the society. Thirdly, reported violence in a conflict, especially casualty figures could lead to more violence. Nigeria is also a typical illustration of this. Whenever killing is reported, it usually precipitates reprisal attacks elsewhere. Fourthly, it should be noted that each party in the dispute wants to have a voice through the media from where they can air their subjective opinions on the issue. The media must not become or be seen as a horn speaker for either of the parties, as that would not be without grave consequences. Then we have the Post-Crisis stage. The media must determine, suggest and promote through editorial and commentaries, what Ã¢â¬Å"strategies and policies can be developed [and deployed] to prevent similar or related crisisÃ¢â¬ (Ajala 2001:180). There should be a continual emphasis on those issue that guarantee peace, justice, equity and mutual coexistence, while denouncing those that cause disaffection, frustration and distress in the system. If these steps are observed, the media would be a veritable tool for, not just crisis reporting; but crisis management through reporting. The Origin and Nature of the Nigerian Press Nigerian Media historians generally agree that the Nigerian Press has a Christian missionary origin. Goaded by the motive Ã¢â¬Å"to excite the intelligence of the peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦and get them to readÃ¢â¬ , Henry Townsend established the Iwe Iroyin in 1859 (Duyile 1987 cited by Mohamed 2003:19). Shortly, after the establishment of this mission Ã¢â¬âoriented press, the nationality press came on stream. The primary objective of this era was to attack, decimate and summarily expel the British imperialists. It was hostile to the British colonial administration. The press in this era championed the liberation struggle, agitating for sovereignty and self-governance. It had a nationalist (not a nationality) focus. This era technically ended on September 30, 1960 (Ajuluchukwu 2000:14). Subsequently, the press had the task of engineering a new state and guiding its evolution into a viable venture. Ajuluchukwu (2000:42) speaks of the journalism of this post-independence era in this wise: Ã¢â¬Å"For our professional journalists, the transition experience (from colonial to civil rule) proved sickeningly tortuous, mainly because they apparently failed to be reconciled with the fact that the emergent democratic government of independent Nigeria was not an extension of the preceding imperialist despotism. In that lingering frame of mind, the press remained hostile to the government of indigenous Nigerians as they were to the expelled British Regime. It was as though the media in the First Republic regarded our independent federal administration as a government neither of the people nor by the people and not for the people. The independent print media of the period demonstrated a clear unwillingness to give a blanket support to the governmentÃ¢â¬ It is important to note the emphasis on independent media. Contrary to the independent editorial stance of private-owned media, the earlier established organsiations of the leading politicians of the three major regions Ã¢â¬â Eastern, Western, and Northern Ã¢â¬â were heavily partisan promoting the interest of the regions that had founded them. Mohammed (2003 p33-34) provides insight into the implications of this on the place and role of the press in this era: Ã¢â¬Å"In the Northern Region, such media establishments as the Hausa language publication Gaskiya Tafi Kwabo established in 1948, and remained New Nigeria in 1966; and Radio Television Kaduna, established in 1962Ã¢â¬ ¦the Western Nigerian Television founded in 1959; the tribune group of newspapers, founded in 1951 by Chief Obafemi Awolowo; Sketch Newspapers established in 1964; Dr Nnamdi AzikiweÃ¢â¬â¢s West African Pilot founded in 1937 and its chain of publications, in addition to the Eastern Nigerian Television established in 1960Ã¢â¬ ¦The attainment of independence in 1960 and the devolution of power of the petty bourgeois politicians through the three major political parties (National PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Congress, based in and serving the North, National Council for Nigerian and Cameroon in the east and Action Group in the west)Ã¢â¬ ¦were to impact on the of the mass media in post Ã¢â¬â colonial Nigeria. Although they were once united in Ã¢â¬ËfightingÃ¢â¬â¢ the colonial impostors, they became divided, serving partisan, ethnic and sectional interests. This may be regarded as the beginning of the nationality press in Nigeria. Currently, there exist in the Niger Delta streams of community-based newspapers that seek to foster the Niger Delta agenda. Most of them, based in Port Harcourt, a city which, for some strategic political and socio Ã¢â¬âeconomic reasons may be regarded as the defacto headquarters of the Niger Delta. Some of these papers include Argus, Hard Truth, and The Beacon, among others. Appearing in the tabloid form, most of them circulate on weekly basis. Most also have their circulation scope limited to Port Harcourt, but are no less effective in shaping the opinion of the people and presenting their position on issues plaguing the oil-rich area. It is important to state that the press in the Niger Delta will make an elaborate subject for another research. THE NIGERIAN MEDIA AND NATIONAL SECURITY There are two positions on what constitutes national security-the militarist perspective and the developmental perspective. The militarist perspective locates national security on the ability of a nation to deter attack or defeat it (Lippman cited in Odunlanmi, 1999 p.128). Here national security is seen as the protection of the territorial integrity of a nation by military might. Therefore, a nation should develop the necessary weaponry to curtail and prevent the invasion of her territory by enemy forces and ensure that her citizens enjoy physical freedom, political independence and that their minimum core values are protected (Odunlanmi, 1999:128). On the other hand, the developmental perspective sees national security beyond territorial security of a nation or physical safety of her citizens. As observed by Nweke (1988) : Ã¢â¬Å"There is no doubt that national security embodies the sovereignty of the state, the inviolability of its national boundaries, and the right to individual and collective self-defense against internal threat. But the state is secure only when the aggregate of people organized under it has the consciousness of belongings to a common sovereign political community; enjoy equal political freedom, human rights, economic opportunities, and when the state itself is able to ensure independence in its development and foreign policyÃ¢â¬ cited in Odunlanmi (1999 p129). Alli (2001 p201) agrees with this thought by advancing that security should be all-embracing and may include: Ã¢â¬Ëpersonal security and freedom from danger and crimeÃ¢â¬â¢; Ã¢â¬Ëfreedom from fear and anxietyÃ¢â¬â¢; Ã¢â¬Ëfreedom from diseaseÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëa general feeling of well-beingÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus the people in a state must not just be said to have access or means of economic self-reliance, political participation, respect for basic human rights and dignity; they must be seen to enjoy these benefits. They must be seen to be sufficiently empowered to access and enjoy good food, good shelter, equal rights to political participations, right to freedom of expression and civil decent and other basic rights. Conclusion One of the basic causes of conflict in any society is the lack of free flow of communication. Each segment of society needs an outlet to vent the feelings and opinion on issues of the day. Sewant (2000 p20) speaks of civil institutions in society which are Ã¢â¬Å"uncommitted to any political party or ideologyÃ¢â¬ . These institutions may be educational, religious, literary and cultural, sport, financial and economic, or social welfare. Ã¢â¬Å"These institutionsÃ¢â¬ , he says, Ã¢â¬Å"occupy spaces in the social life not covered by the political institutions. There is a competition and even rivalry between the political and the civil institutions need a voice through the media.Ã¢â¬ Clearly, the media must provide a platform for civil discourse and dialogue in which people must air their views on matters that concern them. When opinions are suppressed, emotions repressed, and views ignored, the result may be a state of anarchy, whose perpetrators may want to excuse on the unavailability of Ã¢â¬Å"option[s] other than when opinions anxious to voice their own idealistic, even altruistic, goalsÃ¢â¬ (Whittaker, 2004:3). Alli (2001:201) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"in a heterogeneous society like Nigeria, suppressed opinion is unhealthy to the foundation of state, it [breads] discontent and violent expressionÃ¢â¬ . In his work on Ã¢â¬Ëthe capacity of the media for social mobilizationsÃ¢â¬â¢, Folarin (2000, p104) observes that Ã¢â¬Å"mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s potential to counter threats to stability, minimize panic and anxiety and maintain cultural and political consensusÃ¢â¬ . By simply giving people the opportunity to talk, a lot of problems may be avoided, curtailed or solved. The media must provide this opportunity. Ã¢â¬Å"When the media represents and speaks on behalf of all sections of the society, particularly the voiceless, it gives meaning to democracy as a truly representative regimeÃ¢â¬ (Sewant, 2000:25). Secondly, the media have capacity to champion polices that encourage better living condition by promoting accountability, responsible leadership and good governance on the part of leaders. At the same time, should be on the vanguard of campaigns against any policies or actions that undermine national security. The media provides a platform for debates on public policies, so that both the rulers and the ruled have the opportunity to make inputs, the effect of which are far-reaching in strengthening democratic structures and guaranteeing national security. This is the correction role of the media. Further, programming in the media should also address the need for citizenship and cultural education, so that in a plural society, like Nigeria, one segment of the polity is able to understand, appreciate and respect the other cultures extant in the society. This will cause less tension. For this to happen, it is crucial to have a media that is plural, to the extent of being representative of the different interest in the state. Oyovbaire (2000, p103) advocates for pluralism of the press in terms of an operational base that is diffused and a programming philosophy that is liberal and accommodating of interest other than that of the proprietors. Unfortunately, as Oyovbaire argues, the media has not only been concentrated in the south-west of Nigeria, particularly Lagos State, it is often seen to hold and highlight sectional opinions. In promoting national security, the media must educate and enlighten the citizens on the factors that unite them, while avoiding and dislodging divisive tendencies and sentiments (Odunlanmi, 1999:132). How to cite Interpretation and judgement in news reporting., Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about theCorporate Philanthropyfor Cash Donations. Answer: Introduction: Corporate philanthropy is such actions of the corporations through which the donations and the resources are given in the charity to the organisations which are no profitable. It mainly consists of the cash donations and is also in other forms such as the use of the volunteer time of the company's employee and also few facilities of the companies for the welfare of the others. Donations are mainly handled by the corporations directly or by the foundations which are developed by the corporations (Meadows, 2004). Corporate philanthropy includes the fundraising matches, community grand, and the volunteer team grants. The corporate philanthropy includes the two ways in which the organisations can donate are the volunteer grant programs and the matching gift programs. Corporate Philanthropy Matching gift programs--is also known as the donating the money to the nonprofits. Many programmes related to the charity are also organised, where in the organisation matches the contribution which is done by individuals to the organisation. Volunteer grant programs: Such program is diverse from the matching gift program in a great way, as in such process the people will not directly help with the money to the non-profits organisations but will support the people who are will for such donation on the voluntary basis. In this program, the organisation will aid the non-profit organisation with the financial help where the workforce is agreeable to effort willingly regularly (Pribbenow, 2005). This programme works in two ways: The employees who work voluntarily for the no- profits are paid on hourly basis Such standards are fixed by the company where if the employee works voluntarily for certain fixed hours then the company will support financially to the non-profit organisation. Many of the big and the well-established organisations are trying to apply such practices and policies which will be beneficial for the Corporate Philanthropy. Normally, the best practices and the policies will help you in a better understanding of its position in the company and in calculating the amount that is to be given in the form of the charity or donation. For the calculation of the charity, one can follow the following formula which is to multiply 1.2 timesnet income as per the tax of last year and to conclude the least amount of the cash budget for the next years donation (Ihl and Vossen, 2014). Example of Corporate Philanthropy; Sales Force Here will discuss the company Sales force which is the worldwide online software company and is based in Australia. The other world big companies act as the inspiration and the mentor for promoting and encouraging the sales force for the corporate philanthropy. The foundation's sales force was originated by the company 15 years before based on the simple principle to donate 1% of the company time, product, and equity for improving the communities which are under privilege and need the support all over the globe (Generosity Magazine, 2015). Sales force and their foundation with the organisation works on the model known as the 1-1-1 which also shares the donation with the other companies who also pledges to share its 1% (Salesforce.org, 2016). This concept was originated by the co-founder and the president SuzanneDebianca, who is also on the boards of the other councils. She aims to expand this message all over the globe and to inspire the other organisation to work for the cause of th e corporate philanthropy in the managed way. In this segment, she receives a great positive response from Atlassian which is one of the technical companies of Australia. In the starting the, Dibianca studies about the present methodologies of philanthropic which are practiced all over the globe, observe the shortcomings and developed such systems which helped in improving the final results. Philanthropic Model The integrated philanthropy model of the Sales Force supports the Play works to get better the well-being and the health of the children in all the schools across the nation. Salesforce.org follows the simple idea of the; influences the people, resources and the technology to support the communities around the world in improving the conditions or for their betterment. In this model, the Technology offers the discounted and the donated technologies to the non-profits organisation. Through us programmes the Higher Ed institutionsand the non-profit corporate is given the access by the company to use the product of the Sales Force Company for expanding collectively. This programme includes the subscriptions of the 10 donations and also a great discount on further more subscriptions or on the services and the products (Salesforce.com, 2016). Under this model, the employees also have the freedom to take the decision that for what cause and where the employee can volunteer. The organisation empowers the employees with the volunteer time of the seven days in one financial year, grant of almost $10,000to the best volunteers of the financial year donating for the non-profit organisation, an access to the team grants for sporting the volunteer activities of the employees (Salesforce.org, 2016). The resources in the model also help the providing the grant or the donations to the non-profit organisation which is inspired by the communities, technologies, and the employees. In one of the research it was concluded that under the existing practices of the model, it was cleared that three of the areas are there where improvements can be made by the people. These improvements are of the prime importance and are to be a pledge by the companies to share 1 % of the all the three people, products, and money for the growth of the underprivileged communities. Theory of Corporate Philanthropy to Planned Behaviour: Many of the scholars have researched that corporate philanthropy in a great way helps in the companies discriminatory responsibilities.They also tried to discover the relation between the philanthropy and the outcomes which are related to the organisation reputation and the financial profit. Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB) gives the foundation which is theoretically based on the model of development which will help in the better understanding of the behaviours related to the corporate philanthropy (Frost and Stone, 2009). Philanthropy as a Strategy: Philanthropy also works as the strategic movement which helps or supports the organisation in improving its strategic position. Sales Force from the founding of the organisation has contributed almost $128+ million grants or more, and around 1.6 million hours for servicing the community and provided the donations of products further 29,000 nonprofits and to the institutions of higher education (Miller, 2008). Corporate philanthropy and the altruism market: Today there is the market of the philanthropic which is also known as a market for altruism here the non-profit organisations, government, and the profit organisations contend with each other for the best. Corporation should treat in the philanthropy when there is anextra advantage over the non-profit corporations and the government (Henderson and Malani, n.d.). The government should also take into consideration certain points while setting tax policyand avoid discrimination between nonprofits and corporations that undertake good work. Conclusion Philanthropy is used this day as the base refers advertising plus the building as well as thepromoting of the position and the image of the organisation. Yet another program like the cause-related sales and marketing where all of the corporate spending are deductible, the organisations do not get any kind of the added advantage for getting indulged in the philanthropy refer their comparison to the various business purposes. The corporations in the present times can use some effort of assisting the non-profit companies to carefully improve the context of the competition. Various companies have also started to use the context focus of the philanthropy which targets the social and the economic benefits. It can be the easiest and the most effective manner so as to improve the competitive market context (Campbell and Slack, 2007). Like, Providing money wise help to the University can be much far more safe and economical as compared to the in-house kind of the training thus as per the bene fits from the philanthropy, these companies are even able to move hand in hand to the non-profit companies. Charity can also help in improving the education and the training.One of the Production Company in Los Angeles in recent times skilled the cluster of individuals who will help them in their production company. Here the Company targeted equally the economic and the social benefits. The social benefit incorporated the enhanced education system and better opportunities for employment for the inferior class and the economic benefit included the individuals especially skilled for such purpose. The initiatives of philanthropy also help in getting better the superiority of the life.Salesforce.org is dedicated to back-up the Nonprofits and Higher-Ed Institutes for finding the most favourable solution related to their needs or requirements. The Goal of the company is to improve the efficiencies, programs, operations and streamline processes, and also to accelerate the overall impact on the organisation. References Campbell, D. and Slack, R. (2007). Corporate "Philanthropy Strategy" and "Strategic Philanthropy": Some Insights From Voluntary Disclosures in Annual Reports.Business Society, 47(2), pp.187-212. Frost, L. and Stone, S. (2009). Community-Based Collaboration: A Philanthropic Model for Positive Social Change.Foundation Rev, 1(1), pp.55-68. Generosity Magazine. (2015).Pledge 1%: Is it the revolution corporate philanthropy has been waiting for? - Generosity Magazine. [online] Available at: https://www.generositymag.com.au/pledge-1-is-it-the-revolution-corporate-philanthropy-has-been-waiting-for/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2016]. Henderson, M. and Malani, A. (n.d.). Corporate Philanthropy and the Market for Altruism.SSRN Electronic Journal. Ihl, C. and Vossen, A. (2014). Paying for Philantrophy? The Prosocial Boundaries of Monetary Incentives in Idea Co-creation.Academy of Management Proceedings, 2014(1), pp.15620-15620. Meadows, C. (2004). Philanthropic choice and donor intent: Freedom, responsibility, and public interest.New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 2004(45), pp.95-102. Miller, J. (2008). The ongoing legitimacy project: corporate philanthropy as protective strategy.European Management Review, 5(3), pp.151-164. Pribbenow, P. (2005). Public character: Philanthropic fundraising and the claims of accountability.New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 2005(47), pp.13-27. Salesforce.com. (2016).Integrated Corporate Philanthropy: the 1-1-1 Model- - Salesforce Australia. [online] Available at: https://www.salesforce.com/au/company/salesforceorg/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2016]. Salesforce.org. (2016).Pledge 1% - Salesforce.org. [online] Available at: https://www.salesforce.org/pledge-1/ [Accessed 23 Sep. 2016].
Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Supplier Relationships and Negotiations Paper Good relationships with suppliers are essential for running successful businesses. Managing supplier relationships can be a challenging and resource intensive operation. It would also require time and energy to be invested. Hence, it is important that the management identifies priorities in this area and focus their attention there. Segmenting the vendor base is one practical way of accomplishing this task. That is, instead of treating all vendors in equal footing, giving preferential treatment to key vendors is the right way to go. This is especially valid when the business enterprise is fairly large. The management needs to assess supplier relationships in terms of their complexity and criticality and then prioritize. In order to ascertain how complex the relationship with a particular supplier is, the following factors should be considered: Ã¢â¬Å"1.Number of individual relationships (contracts) your organization has with the vendor. 2. Variety of information products licensed from the vendor. 3. Degree of fragmentation of the vendor group, i.e., to what extent does the group act as autonomous units?Ã¢â¬ (Brevig, 2008, p.28) Criticality, on the other hand, is the negative consequences that the company would suffer if a particular vendor was not available. Hence, it is fairly obvious that depending on complexity and criticality of any supplier relationship management efforts toward maintain a healthy relationship should be decided. For example, We will write a custom essay sample on Supplier Relationships and Negotiations specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Supplier Relationships and Negotiations specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Supplier Relationships and Negotiations specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Ã¢â¬Å"If the vendor relationship is uncomplicated and noncritical, you should probably use an opportunistic approach focusing on managing costs. Dealing with such vendors at armÃ¢â¬â¢s length is adequate and the least resource-intensive. For vendor relationships of medium complexity and criticality, a collaborative approach is more appropriate.Ã¢â¬ (Brevig, 2008, p.28) Strategic relationships are another option that can be pursued for those suppliers who are deemed extremely important for the short-term and long-term operations of the company. It takes a lot of time, effort and energy to build strategic relationships. It also requires the involvement of top management from both parties to ensure its success. One of the key objectives of strategic management is to leverage the total potential with one solid relationship instead of many. Another aim would be to fully avail of the expertise offered by the supplier. (Bendixen, et.al, 2007, p.3) Skilful negotiation is another feature of supplier relationships. Negotiation is usually considered an art then a systematic method. Negotiation is defined as the amicable reaching of agreement among all involved parties. Successful negotiation depends on three important factors. The first is the compelling drive to succeed. Second is the strong comprehension of fundamental concepts; and third is good fortune. In essence, success or failure in negotiation is more dependent on Ã¢â¬Å"actions, inaction, habits, idiosyncrasies, blinders, insights and clever strategic movements of the individual involved, more than the terms of the agreement or other formal elements of the proposed transaction.Ã¢â¬ (Hanselmann, 2001, p.60) There are three different types of negotiation. These are: Ã¢â¬Å"The first is internal, which primarily involves managers and employees focusing on work and employee issues, such as job roles, pay, goals, priorities, tasks, productivity and deadlines. The second type of negotiation is external. This type of negotiation occurs between an organization and an external party, such as a customer, a suppler or your insurance carrier. All of us in the credit profession are involved in external negotiation on a daily basis. Some examples of external negotiation are bid proposals, delivery schedules, quality, deadlines, financing and the approval to supply our customers on a credit basis. The third type of negotiation is legal, which involves an organization abiding by the legal requirements of the various governing agencies.Ã¢â¬ (Hanselmann, 2001, p.60) Works Cited Bendixen, Mike, Russell Abratt, and Preston Jones. Ã¢â¬Å"Ethics and Social Responsibility in Supplier-customer Relationships.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship 12.1 (2007): 3+. Brevig, Armand. Ã¢â¬Å"Getting Value from Vendor Relationships.Ã¢â¬ Searcher Oct. 2008: 28+. Hanselmann, Jacob J. Ã¢â¬Å"Success in Negotiation.Ã¢â¬ Business Credit Sept. 2001: 60+. Good relationships with suppliers are essential for running successful businesses. Managing supplier relationships can be a challenging and resource intensive operation. It would also require time and energy to be invested. Hence, it is important that the management identifies priorities in this area and focus their attention there. Segmenting the vendor base is one practical way of accomplishing this task. That is, instead of treating all vendors in equal footing, giving preferential treatment to key vendors is the right way to go. This is especially valid when the business enterprise is fairly large. The management needs to assess supplier relationships in terms of their complexity and criticality and then prioritize. In order to ascertain how complex the relationship with a particular supplier is, the following factors should be considered: Ã¢â¬Å"1.Number of individual relationships (contracts) your organization has with the vendor. 2. Variety of information .
Friday, March 6, 2020
What is your motivation for pursuing an MBA. What is your motivation for pursuing an MBAWhat is your motivation for pursuing an MBA now and how will UCLA Anderson help you to achieve your goals? TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s world is a business arena and most of the people hold a keen desire to have a successful business. Yet without professional knowledge one canÃ¢â¬â¢t run a successful business. Entrepreneurs as well as corporate executives and managers require professional soundness and expertise to conduct any business successfully. For that a sound academic background is a must which can not come without a professional degree. MBA degree gives an edge over others who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have it. It provides ample opportunities to learn ins and outs of business and global corporate practices. Everybody wants to pursue a brighter career path and I think an MBA degree is a prerequisite for building a good business career. From the early stage of my life, I aspire to start a business of my own. Becoming my own boss is my only dream. This is a fact that business can be started with trial and error mode but profitability can not be assured like this. To be successful profound knowledge and practical experience is a must which only an MBA program can offer.Ã This degree gives an added advantage in all the phases of life. Learning from this formal education builds confidence and enable the person to take challenge and critical decision at the right time. MBA degree holders always get preference in the business environment and are treated as stars. Thus, pursuing an MBA before starting my career is a necessity. UCLA Anderson is one of the best management schools all over the world. Students get renowned faculty with enriched labs, libraries and other academic facilities. The MBA curriculum of UCLA Anderson is quite unique and focuses on the individual preferences and choices. Students are nurtured in a way that enables them to cope with work challenges and competitive business world. The world class environment and highly skilled educators and researchers of this institute helps to expose the hidden talent of the students. Throughout the MBA program, students are groomed with practical assignments, case studies and term papers which help them learn managerial techniques. This grooms their decision making abilities by enhancing their understanding about various issues. Those renowned faculties share their own practical experiences in the field of finance, marketing, management, human resource management, accounting, operation research, organization behavior from which students get benefited. The program is designed to enhance the quality and skills which helps the students to become the future head of any organization. The leadership skill of the MBA students of UCLA Anderson is evident from the fact that many top corporate managers and executives have this degree from this institute. MBA students become so adept about the business that they can withstand any challenging situation. An MBA graduate is expected to be the master of any business activity and it is only possible with a sound academic background and practical knowledge. I believe the MBA program of UCLA Anderson help students to become the masters in the business field. Its curriculum is said to be the best which not only equip students with theoretical knowledge but also the practical stuff which is of great importance while dealing with any challenging situations. UCLA Anderson produces future business leaders, highly profound government officials and organization heads that are capable of making right decision at the right time. The MBA graduates enjoy being a part of a community of 36000 worldwide alumni networks. The interaction among the faculties and students is so good that all become a family which gives rise to a knowledgeable and learned community. Even after the completion of the program UCLA Anderson graduates are seen in various reunions and get together programs. It is the practicality and reliability of UCLA Anderson MBA program which makes it my dream to be a part of this renowned family by enrolling myself in the program. The World class education of UCLA Anderson and the academic environment will surely help me develop my managerial skills. I can apply those skills and education in the operating area when I will engage myself in the business. Graduates of this program established themselves in various fields and working in different multinational organizations countrywide and abroad. The higher demand of UCLA Anderson MBA program in the job market inspires me to undertake the course in this institute. Since the course is customized to the needs and choices of the students, it will help me explore my capability and talents. I believe I will materialize my dream of becoming a future organization head if UCLA Anderson becomes my mentor.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Business Strategy - Essay Example Here it is essential to note that Bord Gais has a wide range of options to choose from in terms of the suppliers. Hence if one the arrangements with the suppliers do not work effectively, the company has a choice to change over the suppliers. Considering the threats of the new entrants, it is clear that the company has built a strong brand image for itself and has also been able to effectively retain its customers by staying in track with the latest market changes and requirements. Hence here the company faces Low to medium levels of threats. Although new entrants can enter into the markets, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current customer base as well as the goodwill will permit Bord Gais to effectively fight against the newer entrants. The company however faces a High and Very High levels of threats in terms of the substitute products and the rivalry respectively in the current markets. The current trend in the markets where customers are opting for the Ã¢â¬Ëdebt hoppingÃ¢â¬â¢ option, the rivalry and substitute products prove to be a major level of threat for the company. However although the company does lose out on customers, they do gain customers who have hopped from other companies as well. The above figure provides a clear overview of the threats faced by the company and the intensity of the threats has also been displayed. The strategic group analysis helps the management to gain a better idea of the direct competition for the company. Here the main competitors for Bord Gais are: a) Mott MacDonald Group Limited, b) Papierfabrik Palm GmbH & Co. KG, c) Tembec Inc., d) Mainstream Renewable Power Ltd., and e) Phoenix Natural Gas. The figure below provides a clear view of the position of each of these companies in terms of each other and their strategies. It is essential to note that not all of the above mentioned companies act as direct competition to Bord Gais as this is determined more so by the size and the market position of the companies (Kotler, Keller,